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Flashcards in Patho Exam 2 Deck (87):
1

structures of the upper airway

nasopharynx and oropharynx

2

divides the upper and lower airways

The larynx

3

Structures in the lower airway

  • The trachea and bronchi

4

The right and left main bronchi enter the lungs where?

Hila

5

The goblet cells secrete

mucus

6

What is the process called where carbon dioxide (CO2) is exchanged for oxygen?

Respiration

7

refers to actual blood flow and oxygen delivery

circulation

8

Which receptor monitors pH, PaCO2, and PaO2 of arterial blood?

Chemoreceptors

9

Which of the following would shift the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve to the left?

Hypocapnia

10

Which are steps in the process of gas exchange?

  1. Ventilation
  2. Diffusion
  3. Perfusion

11

Which structures are considered part of the acinus?

  1. Respiratory bronchioles

  2. Alveolar ducts

  3. Alveoli

12

Which muscle has a major role in respiration?

  1. External Intercostal
  2. Diaphram

13


The respiratory center characteristics
 

  • located in the brain stem.
  • affecting the respiratory muscles’ ability to contract and relax
  • transmitting impulses that bring about the physical act of breathing.
  • influenced by emotions and pain.

14

inadequate alveolar ventilation in relation to metabolic demands

Hypoventilation

15

Which pathology most commonly results in pulmonary edema?

Increasing pressure in the left chambers of the heart

16

a diffuse, inflammatory obstruction of the small airways or bronchioles

Bronchiolitis

17

abnormal permanent enlargement of gas-exchange airways (acini) accompanied by destruction of alveolar walls without obvious fibrosis.

Emphysema

18

A patient has symmetrically dilated airways. Which type of bronchial dilation is this?

Cylindrical

19

when the bronchi become large and balloon like.

saccular

20

when constrictions and dilations destroy the bronchi.

Varicose

21

the persistent abnormal dilation of the bronchi

Bronchiectasis

22

indicates there was trauma to the chest resulting in the collapse of the lung

Secondary pneumothorax

23

Which diagnosis finding is characteristically present when the parietal pleura is infected?

Friction Rub

24

often associated with ectopic hormone production, especially antidiuretic hormone

Small Cell Carcinoma

25

Which condition can cause of hypercapnia?

  • Disease of the medulla
  • Large airway obstruction
  • Thoracic cage abnormalities
  • Depression of Respiratory Center

26

Expiratory stridor

a monophonic wheeze

27

Airway Obstruction is most likely to occur in which age group?

  • in infants.
  • This is due to their smaller airway and smaller diameter.
  • more cartilage and collapse easily.
  • A cough can be a sign of infection, foreign body, or obstruction.

28

Surfactant

  1. a lipid protein mix produced by type II cells.
  2. is found in the lining of the alveoli
  3. reduces surface tension

29

A 20 year old male presents to his primary health care provider, difficulty breathing when lying down. What term should the nurse use to document this condition?

orthopnea

30

Define Paroxysmal Nocturnal Dyspnea

  • attacks of SOB & coughing that occur at night.
  • Awakens the person from sleep, and may be quite frightening.

31

A patient with PND is most likely to have

left ventricular failure

32

A 20 year old male is in acute pain. ABG reveals decreased CO2. What is most likely the cause

hyperventilation

33

Cyanosis definition

  • bluish discoloration of the skin & mucous membranes,
  • caused by increasing amounts of desaturated or reduced hemglobin in the blood.

34

Reduced oxygenation of arterial blood

Hypoxemia

35

what is the most common cause of pulmonary edema?

  • left sided heart failure
  • increasing pressure of left chambers of the heart

36

Define Emphysema

  • abnormal permanent enlargement of gas-exchange airways (acini) accompanied by destruction of alveolar walls without obvious fibrosis.

37

Clinical Manifestation of Pulmonary Edema

 

  • dyspnea
  • crackless
  • dullness of percuss at lung bases
  • pink frothy sputum
  • hypercapnia

38

Define Open Pneumothorax

 

  • air pressure in the pleural space equals barometric pressure
  • b/c air that is drawn into the pleural space during inspiration is forced back out during expiration

39

Define Tension Pneumothorax?

 

  • pleural rupture acts as a one way valve
  • air ents on inspiration but preventing its escape by closing during expiration. 
  • air pressure exceeds barometric pressure
  • life threatening

40

this is the collapse of lung tissue which tend to develop post op

Atelectasis

41

A 30 year old male is involved in a motor vehicle accident and sustains trauma to the lungs and chest wall. he experiences respiratory failure. which of the following lab values would the nurse expect

elevated PaCO2

42

A 60 year old female with emphysema is having difficulty expiring a given volume of air. when giving report, the nurse will relay that the patient is most likely experiencing ___ pulmonary disease

Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

43

Asthma related to Airway obstruction contributing to increased airflow resistance and hypoventilation in asthma is caused by

mucus secretion, bronchoconstriction, and airway edema

44

A 10 year old male is brought to the ER with prolonged bronchospasm and severe hypoxemia. the most likely diagnosis on the chart is

Status asthmaticus

45

a 53 year old male with a 20 year history of smoking is diagnosed with emphysema. when the nurse is asked what causes this, what is the nurse's best response? changes in his lungs are caused by

Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency

46

A 53 year old male with a 20 year history of smoking is diagnosed with emphysema. Why the patient's airways are obstructed?

Loss of elastic recoil

47

Pneumonia is caused by

viral or bacterial infections

48

A 30 year old male prison inmate contracted tuberculosis during an outbreak. while planning interactions, the nurse realizes the patient can transmit this disease through

airborne droplets

49

Who would be at highest risk for developing pulmonary embolism (PE)?

72 year old male who is recovering from hip replacement surgery in the hospital

50

Expected assessment findings for someone with a pulmonary embolism

  • chest pain
  • tachycardia
  • tachypnea
  • fever
  • hemoptysis

51

a 50 year old male is diagnosed with pulmonary embolism (PE). what symptoms most likely occurred before treatment

chest pain and shortness of breath

52

A 60 year old male undergoes surgery for a bone fracture. what nursing measure would be most effective for preventing pulmonary embolism (PE) in this patient?

prevent deep vein thrombosis

53

A yougn patient is admitted to the pediatric unit with cystic fibrosis (CF) exacerbation. the nurse monitors the patient closely because the main cause of death in a child with CF is

respiratory failure

54

while reviewing lab results, the help confirm a diagnosis of cystic fibrosis in a 1-year old child which substance will be present in the child's sweat

sodium chloride

55


While planning care for a child with asthma, which of the following is characteristic of asthma

Prolonged Expirations

56

a correct cause and effect sequence in the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)?

  • alveolocapillary membrane injury causing a massive inflammatory response

57

characteristic of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH)

  1. fatigue
  2. dyspnea
  3. Jugular Vein Distention

58

Define Alveolar Dead Space

  • a series of alveoli in the left lower lobe receive adequate ventilation but do not have adequate perfusion

59

asthma is thought to be caused by

interactions between genetic and environmental factors

60

a nurse recalls respiratory distress and hypoxemia in laryngotracheobronchitis are caused by

mucosal edema

61

When a patient has a massive pulmonary embolism (PE), what complications will the nurse monitor for

Shock & Death

62

to prevent sudden infant death syndrome, the nurse should instruct parents to

always lay infants down on their backs to sleep

63

A nurse remembers bronchiolitis mainly occurs in children under the age of ______

One

64

A nurse remembers a low ventilation-perfusion ratio results in

shunting

65

How is asthma classified

clinical severity

66

SIDS peaks between ____ and ____ months of age

3, 4

67

Airway hyper-responsiveness in asthma is related to

exposure to an allergen causing mast cell degranulation

68

mean pulmonary artery pressure reading will indicate to the nurse that pulmonary hypertension is occurring? Pulmonary artery pressure above _________ mmHg

Above 25

69

A newborn has respiratory distress syndrome, what is a predisposing factor

Premature Birth

70

A newborn has respiratory distress syndrome. A nurse recalls cardiovascular alterations seen in respiratory distress syndrome include

Opening of fetal shunt pathways

71

A newborn has respiratory distress syndrome. A nurse monitors the newborn for atelectasis because of

lack of surfactant

72


An infant was born 10 weeks premature and put on mechanical ventilation. two months later he presents with hypoxemia and hypercapnia, what is the diagnosis?

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD)

73

A group of mountain climbers experience confusion, tachycardia, edema, and decreased renal output after climbing Mount Rainier. A nurse recalls this condition is caused by

Decreased inspired oxygen

74

A geneticist is discussing cystic fibrosis (CF). which information should be included? CF is an ____ disease

autosomal recessive

75

a sinking in the supraclavicular and intercostal areas of the thorax was noted with inspiration. this observation is documented as

retractions

76

Asthma affects ____% of children between 5-17 years old

10%

77

An 80 year old female is in the hospital for a bone fracture. while there she develops a large, nonlethal pulmonary embolus. What is the result of the obstruction of pulmonary blood flow>

pulmonary hypertension

78

A 65 year old male recently had a cerebrovascular accident that resulted in dysphagia. he now has aspiration of gastric contents. the nurse assesses the patient for which complication

 

pneumonia

79

A patient is diagnosed with an antidiuretic hormone-producing lung tumor. What is the most likely diagnosis?

small cell carcinoma

80

A 60 year old male with a 40 year history of smoking presents with chest pain, cough, sputum production, and pneumonia. tests reveal widespread metastatic cancer, and the primary care provider plans radiation therapy. which of the following is the most likely type of cancer to be documented on the chart

Non Small Cell Carcinoma

81

A 60 year old female with a history of cirrhosis presents with dyspnea, impaired ventilation, and pleural pain. a diagnosis of pleural effusion is made, and a watery fluid is drained. when giving report, the nurse will refer to this fluid as

transudative

82

a 60 year old female with a 25 year history of smoking is diagnosed with emphysema. she has an increased anterior-posterior chest diameter. the nurse attributes this finding to

Air Trapping (Barrel Chest)

83

a 57 year old male presents with cough, sputum production, dyspnea, and decreased lung volume. he is diagnosed with pneumoconiosis, cause of illness?

inhalation of silica, asbestos, mica

84

A 50 year old diabetic male did not take his medication and is now in metabolic acidosis. eh is experiencing Kussmaul respirations. what type of breathing will the nurse observe upon assessment

a slightly increased ventilatory rate, large tidal volumes, and no expiratory pause

85

A 45 year old male undergoes lung transplantation. he now suffers from airway occlusion secondary to fibrosis. which diagnosis will the nurse see on the chart

bronchilitis obliterans

86

A 42 year old female presents with dyspnea, rapid, shallow breathing, inspiratory crackles, decreased lung compliance, and hypoxemia. tests reveal a fulminate form of respiratory failure characterized by acute lung inflammation and diffuse alveolocapillary injury.

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)

87

A 28 year old male reports to his primary care provider that he has had a cold for a week and is coughing up bloody secretions.

hemoptysis