Flashcards in Pathology Deck (67)
Pathogenesis is defined as...
The sequence of events from a healthy state to clinical disease
Some sequelae of coronary artery thromobosis are?
Myocardial infarction, arrhythmias, ischaemia, angina, heart failure
Physical characteristics of inflammation include...
Redness, heat, swelling, pain, loss of function
Redness and heat assoc with inflammation is due to...
Vasodilation within the damaged area, causing increased blood flow and as a result skin temperature
Necrosis is defined as...
(premature) Cell death
Apoptosis is defined as...
It is useful because...
Programmed cell death
Get rid of damaged, dead cells and debris
Resolution is complete restoration of inflamed tissue. Factors favouring this include...
Minimal cell death/damage
Occurrence in an organ/tissue with good regenerative capacity
Short duration/rapid destruction of causal agent
The formation of pus, made up of living cells, dying cells, dead neutrophils, debris and bacteria
Organisation of tissues after inflammation is their replacement by _____ tissue
Describe how granulation tissue is formed?
Capillaries grow into the inflammatory exudate with macrophages and fibroblasts
Angiogenesis, fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis (forms scars) occurs
Processes regulated by GFs (TNF, EGF)
Permanent cells are more susceptible to mutations. True/False?
Dividing cells are more susceptible - e.g. skin, gut, bone, hair cells
p53 is important in DNA repair. What does it do?
Recognises a base pair sequence alteration and triggers cell death when the DNA is damaged
Free radicals are dangerous to membrane integrity. What do they do?
Lipid peroxidation - bind to lipids and reduce their solubility
Broccoli and cabbage have high anti-oxidants that scavenge and destroy free radicals
An example of an area where colliquative necrosis would occur?
Liquid myelin sheath of nerve fibres remains after brain substance dies
An example of caseous necrosis?
An example of an area where fibrinoid necrosis would occur?
Blood vessels (most common in liver)
Walls replaced by fibrin
Principle causes of acute inflammation include...
Bacterial and viral infections
Chemicals and irritants
The 3 phases of acute inflammation are:
Vascular - vasodilation and increased permeability
Exudative - fluid and cells escape from venules
Cellular - neurophils etc accumulate
What happens in transendothelial migration?
Neutrophils insert part of their cytoplasm into endothelium when they come into contact with ICAM-1
What is the effect of histamine?
What is it released by?
Vasodilation, increases vascular permeability, bronchoconstriction
Mast cells, eosinophils, basophils
Chronic inflammation is associated with the presence of...
Lymphocytes, macrophages, plasma cells
Formation of granulation tissue -> fibrosis
Characteristic appearances of chronic inflammation include...
Abscess cavities/suppurative inflammation
A granuloma is defined as...
An aggregate of epitheloid histiocytes (macrophages etc)
Labile cells are cells that only multiply upon receiving a stimulus. True/False?
Multiply continually - stable cells only multiply after stimulus
First intention healing is when there is an ulcerated surface. True/False?
Surgical scar is left - minimal granulation tissue and fibrosis
Metabolic disorders are of two types - ?
Inherited or acquired
Inherited metabolic disorders are usually autosomal dominant. True/False?
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus is insulin dependent. True/False?
Type 1 Diabetes has no autoimmune assoc. True/False?
Type 2 has no autoimmune assoc.