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Flashcards in Pathology Deck (67)
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1

Pathogenesis is defined as...

The sequence of events from a healthy state to clinical disease

2

Some sequelae of coronary artery thromobosis are?

Myocardial infarction, arrhythmias, ischaemia, angina, heart failure

3

Physical characteristics of inflammation include...

Redness, heat, swelling, pain, loss of function

4

Redness and heat assoc with inflammation is due to...

Vasodilation within the damaged area, causing increased blood flow and as a result skin temperature

5

Necrosis is defined as...

(premature) Cell death

6

Apoptosis is defined as...
It is useful because...

Programmed cell death
Get rid of damaged, dead cells and debris

7

Resolution is complete restoration of inflamed tissue. Factors favouring this include...

Minimal cell death/damage
Occurrence in an organ/tissue with good regenerative capacity
Short duration/rapid destruction of causal agent

8

Suppuration is...

The formation of pus, made up of living cells, dying cells, dead neutrophils, debris and bacteria

9

Organisation of tissues after inflammation is their replacement by _____ tissue

Granulation

10

Describe how granulation tissue is formed?

Capillaries grow into the inflammatory exudate with macrophages and fibroblasts
Angiogenesis, fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis (forms scars) occurs
Processes regulated by GFs (TNF, EGF)

11

Permanent cells are more susceptible to mutations. True/False?

False
Dividing cells are more susceptible - e.g. skin, gut, bone, hair cells

12

p53 is important in DNA repair. What does it do?

Recognises a base pair sequence alteration and triggers cell death when the DNA is damaged

13

Free radicals are dangerous to membrane integrity. What do they do?

Lipid peroxidation - bind to lipids and reduce their solubility
Broccoli and cabbage have high anti-oxidants that scavenge and destroy free radicals

14

An example of an area where colliquative necrosis would occur?

Brain
Liquid myelin sheath of nerve fibres remains after brain substance dies

15

An example of caseous necrosis?

Tuberculosis

16

An example of an area where fibrinoid necrosis would occur?

Blood vessels (most common in liver)
Walls replaced by fibrin

17

Principle causes of acute inflammation include...

Bacterial and viral infections
Hypersensitivity
Trauma
Chemicals and irritants

18

The 3 phases of acute inflammation are:

Vascular - vasodilation and increased permeability
Exudative - fluid and cells escape from venules
Cellular - neurophils etc accumulate

19

What happens in transendothelial migration?

Neutrophils insert part of their cytoplasm into endothelium when they come into contact with ICAM-1

20

What is the effect of histamine?
What is it released by?

Vasodilation, increases vascular permeability, bronchoconstriction
Mast cells, eosinophils, basophils

21

Chronic inflammation is associated with the presence of...

Lymphocytes, macrophages, plasma cells
Formation of granulation tissue -> fibrosis

22

Characteristic appearances of chronic inflammation include...

Ulcer formation
Abscess cavities/suppurative inflammation
Granulomatous inflammation
Fibrosis

23

A granuloma is defined as...

An aggregate of epitheloid histiocytes (macrophages etc)

24

Labile cells are cells that only multiply upon receiving a stimulus. True/False?

False
Multiply continually - stable cells only multiply after stimulus

25

First intention healing is when there is an ulcerated surface. True/False?

False
Surgical scar is left - minimal granulation tissue and fibrosis

26

Metabolic disorders are of two types - ?

Inherited or acquired

27

Inherited metabolic disorders are usually autosomal dominant. True/False?

False
Autosomal recessive!

28

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus is insulin dependent. True/False?

True

29

Type 1 Diabetes has no autoimmune assoc. True/False?

False
Type 2 has no autoimmune assoc.

30

Hyperplasia is defined as...

Enlargement due to increase in cell number