Flashcards in Immunology Deck (50)
There exists an evolutionary arms race between pathogen and host. What does this mean?
Pathogen exploits flaws in the defensive barriers of its host
The host evolves to correct those flaws
Pathogen replicates and evolves to evade corrections to exploit other flaws
Pathogen has ability to replicate much faster than the host; host relies on flexible and rapid immune response to combat
Some features of skin that contribute to barring infection include...
Tightly packed keratinised cells undergo renewal constantly; limits colonisation
Low pH kills pathogens
Sebaceous glands secrete oils and enzymes to destroy bacterial cell walls
The innate immune system has a ___ response and is ____ to micro-organisms
The adaptive immune system has a ___ response and is ____ to micro-organisms
The 5 types of leukocytes (WBCs)?
Neutrophils, Monocytes, Lymphocytes, Eosinophils, Basophils + Mast cells
Primary lymphoid tissue?
Bone marrow, thymus
Secondary lymphoid tissue?
Spleen, tonsils (any sites of AIS activation)
List the leukocyte components of the innate immune system
Macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic cells, basophils, mast cells, eosinophils, NK cells
List the protein components of the innate immune system
Complement, acute phase, cytokines
Basophils and mast cells mature in bone marrow. True/false?
Basophils mature in bone marrow; mast cells mature once in tissue
Basophils and mast cells are mainly involved in ____. They secrete ____, leading to _____...
Secrete histamine and inflammatory mediators, leading to increased vascular permeability and smooth muscle contraction
The main function of phagocytes is?
"Eat" cells by ingesting them and mopping up debris
Neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells mainly involved in phagocytosis
PRRs recognise what on bacteria/viruses?
Not expressed by human cells
Act as a bridge between pathogen and phagocyte receptors
Major opsonins include...
C3b, collectins, Fc of IgG, CRP
Oxidative killing requires which crucial enzyme?
NADPH oxidase complex
Converts oxygen into reactive free radicals
Acute phase proteins are produced by...
CRP greater than 200mg/l indicates...
Severe bacterial/fungal infection
The function of cytokines is to...
Modulate the behaviour of cells, locally and systemically
Interferons are important in...
Limiting viral infections
Interleukins are important in...
Directing cells to divide/differentiate
Mainly produced by T cells (IL-2 important for T cell activation)
Chemokines are important in...
Establishing a concn gradient to direct movement of cells (tell leukocytes where to go)
Complement involves enzymatically activating proteins in a...
Biological cascade, resulting in a rapid response
Classical pathway is activated by...
Antibodies (so B cells need to have been activated for this)
IgG/IgM cause conformational change in C1, activating cascade
In the classical pathway, first C1 is activated, then...
C4, C2, C3
Lectin pathway is activated by...
Mannose-binding lectin binding to carbohydrates
This mimics binding of C1 to immune complexes, so there is no need for antibodies
Alternate pathway is activated by...
Spontaneous hydrolysis of C3 and its direct binding to bacterial cell walls
Membrane attack complex is assembled by which complement proteins?
Functions of C3a and C5a
Inflammatory mediators - recruit phagocytes