Pathology Flashcards Preview

USMLE Step 1: Things I Cannot Remember > Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pathology Deck (15):
1

0What are the four steps of leucocyte extravasation?

  1. Margination and rolling
  2. Tight adhesion
  3. Diapedesis
  4. Migration

2

What is the deficiency in LAD type 1?

Decreased CD18 subunit

  • Defective tight binding
  • CD 18 normally binds to ICAM-1 (CD54)

3

What is the deficiency in LAD-2?

Decreased Sialyl-LewisX

  • Defective margination and rolling
  • Sialyl-LewisX normally bind to E-selectin and P-selectin

4

What are the chemotatic products released in response to bacteria?

  1. C5a
  2. IL-8
  3. LTB4
  4. kallikrein
  5. platelet-activating factor (PAF)

5

Tumor markers:  Alk. phos.

  • metastases to bone or liver
  • Paget's disease of bone
  • seminoma (placental ALP)

6

Tumor markers: AFP

  1. HCC
  2. hepatoblastoma
  3. yolk sack tumor
  4. mixed germ cell tumor

Non-tumor assoications

  • High levels ⇒ neural tube and abdominal wall defects
  • Low levels ⇒ Down syndrome

7

Tumor markers: ß-hCG

  1. Hydatidiform moles
  2. Choriocarcinoma
  3. testicular cancer
  4. mixed germ cell tumor
  • produced by synctiotrophoblasts of the placenta

8

Tumor markers: CA 15-3/CA 27-29

Breast cancer

9

Tumor markers: CA 19-9

Pancreatic adenocarcinoma

10

Tumor markers: CA 125

Ovarian cancer

11

Tumor markers: Calcitonin

Medullary thyroid carcinoma

12

Tumor markers: CEA

CarcinoEmbryonic Antigen (very non-specific)

  • colorectal and pancreatic cancers
  • gastric carcinoma
  • breast carcinoma
  • medullary throid carcinoma

13

Tumor markers: Chromogranin

Neuroendocrine tumors/carcinoid

14

Tumor markers: PSA

Prostate cancer

  • also elevated in BPH and prostatitis

15

Common metastases sites:

  • Brain: 
  • Liver: 
  • Bone: 

  • Brain: 
    • lung > breast > prostate > melanoma > GI
  • Liver: 
    • colon >> stomach > pancreas
  • Bone: 
    • prostate, breast > lung > thyroid, kidney