Pathology Flashcards Preview

Phase 1 - S4 Nervous System > Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pathology Deck (26)
Loading flashcards...
1

What are the 3 ways in which microbes can get into the CNS

- direct spread
- blood-borne spread
- iatrogenic

2

What is meningitis

Inflammation of the leptomeninges

3

What are the leptomeninges

The pia and arachnoid

4

What is the causative organism of meningitis in neonates

E.coli

5

What is the causative organism of meningitis in 2-5 year olds

H. Influenzae

6

What is the causative organism of meningitis in 5-30 year olds

N. Meningitidis

7

What is the causative organism of meningitis in over 30 years

S. Pneumoniae

8

What are the complications of meningitis

Raised intracranial pressure leading to death
Cerebral abscess
Subdural empyema
Cerebral infarction

9

What is encephalitis

Inflammation of the brain parenchyma with the virus causing neuronal cell death

10

Which lobe does the herpes virus affect in encephalitis

Temporal lobe

11

Where does the poliovirus affect in encephalitis

Spinal cord motor neurones

12

Where does rabies affect in the CNS in encephalitis

The brainstem

13

What compensation mechanisms are there to help reduce intracranial pressure

Reduction in blood flow
Reduction in CSF volume
Brain atrophy

14

What a re the 3 types of brain herniation due to raised intracranial pressure

Subfalcine
Tentorial
Tonsilar

15

what is a subfalcine herniation

where the cingulate gyrus is pushed under the edge of the falx cerebri

16

what vessel is compressed in a subfalcine herniation

anterior cerebral artery

17

what is a tentorial herniation

where the uncus of the temporal lobe is pushed through the tentorial notch

18

what nerve is damaged in a tentorial herniation

oculomotor nerve

19

what vessels are occluded in a tentorial herniation

superior cerebellar and posterior cerebral arteries

20

what is a tonsilar herniation

where the cerebellar tonsils are pushed into foramen mags, compressing the brainstem

21

what is a stroke

a sudden event producing disturbances CNS function due to vascular disease

22

what are the risk factors for a stroke

high bp, diabetes, male, elderly

23

what causes intracerebral haemorrhage

hypertensive vessel disease

24

what causes subarachnoid haemorrhage

bursting of a berry aneurysm

25

what are prions

proteins needed for synaptic function

26

what is the pathology behind Alzheimers

tau proteins climb together forming plaques which have an amyloid centre. this causes neuronal damage and cell death