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Phase 1 - S4 Nervous System > Head Trauma > Flashcards

Flashcards in Head Trauma Deck (24)
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1

what is a cerebral contusion

where micro haemorrhages occur at the site of impact of the brain on the skull leading to a mixing of blood with cortical tissue

2

what results from a cerebral contusion

cerebral oedema, raised ICP and coma

3

what is a coup contusion

contusion at the site of direct impact

4

what is a contre-coup contusion

contusion at the opposite side of the impact due to the brain bouncing off the other side

5

what is a concussion

trauma causing stretching giving injury to axons to cause impaired neurotransmission. this gives a reduced cerebral blood flow causing temporary dysfunction

6

what is diffuse axonal injury

where connections between grey and white matter are torn apart leading to axonal death

7

what does diffuse axonal injury result in

cerebral oedema, raised ICP and coma

8

what is a basilar skull fracture

where the bones making up the base of the skull are fractured causing a tear in the meninges

9

what bones make up the base of the skull

occipital, temporal, sphenoid and ethmoid

10

what are the symptoms of a basilar skull fracture

raccoon eyes, battle's sign, CSF rhinorrhea/otorrhea

11

when are urgent CTs given

patients over 65
if the patient takes anticoagulants
if there is amnesia over 30 minutes
if GCS drops below 13 at any point
if GCS remains below 14

12

what is an extradural haemorrhage

collection of blood between the periosteal dura mater and inner surface the skull

13

what vessel is typically affected in an extradural haemorrhage

middle meningeal artery

14

what will be seen on CT in an extradural haemorrhage

lemon/biconvex shape
compressed ventricles
midline shift

15

what colour will acute and chronic bleeds be on CT

acute - bright white
chronic - dark

16

what is a subdural haemorrhage

collection of blood between the dura mater and arachnoid mater

17

what vessels are affected in subdural haemorrhage

bridging veins

18

how would a subdural bleed look on CT

banana/crescent shape bleed

19

what is a subarachnoid haemorrhage

collection of blood between the arachnoid and pia mater

20

what causes subarachnoid haemorrhages

bursting of berry aneurysms

21

how do patients present in subarachnoid haemorrhages

meningitis symptoms
sudden headache
N+V
loss of consciousness

22

what are the risk factors for berry aneuryms

family history, connective tissue disorders, hypertension, alcohol

23

do berry aneurysms affect the anterior or posterior circulation more

anterior

24

how do you diagnose a subarachnoid haemorrhage

lumbar puncture to look for the presence of RBCs and xanthochromia