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Flashcards in Epilepsy and Dementia Deck (31)
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1

what is dementia

a progressive decline in higher cortical function leading to global impairment of memory, intellect and personality

2

name 3 types of dementia

alzheimers, vascular, lewy body and fronto-temporal

3

what is seen microscopically in alzheimers disease

- amyloid-beta plaque
- neurofibrally tangles

4

what drugs can be given to patients with alzheimers

cholinesterase inhibitors

5

what is vascular dementia

this is where you get arteriosclerosis affecting the blood vessels to the brain resulting in ischaemia and infarction

6

what is the pattern of decline in Alzheimers disease

steady decline

7

what is the pattern of decline in vascular dementia

step wise decline: their cognitive state remains the same until another vascular event occurs and then it drops suddenly

8

what is the pattern of decline in lewy body dementia

state of cognitive varies as there are points of improvement, however overall there is a downwards decline

9

what is Lewy body dementia

where Lewy bodies are deposited all over the brain

10

why does Lewy body dementia have parkinsons features

as both disease have Lewy bodies deposited in the substania nigra

11

what is fronto-temporal disease

where tau proteins build up in the frontal and temporal lobes

12

what are some of the reversible causes of dementia

depression, trauma, vitamin deficiency, thyroid dysfunction, alcohol

13

what are the presentations of dementia

- memory loss
- behavioural changes e.g. personality
- physical changes e.g. incontinence and difficultly swallowing
- language disorders
- apraxia = difficultly carrying out learned motor skills

14

what is used to determine the diagnosis between dementia and delirium

CAM score looking at acute changes in mental state, altered consciousness, inattention and disorganised thinking

15

what investigations are carried out to help diagnose dementia

full history
mini mental state examination
MRI/CT
blood tests to rule out reversible causes

16

define seizure

a sudden discharge of electrical activity in the brain

17

define epilepsy

neurological disorder marked by sudden recurrent episodes of seizures

18

define aura

disturbance experienced prior to a seizure e.g. lighting or smells

19

define status epilepticus

when seizures occur without a recovery period in-between meaning the patient may become cyanotic

20

what is a partial seizure

where the electrical discharge only affects a small part of the brain

21

what are the 2 types of partial seizure

simple = patient remains conscious
complex = patient loses consciousness

22

what are the 5 types of generalised seizure

tonic-clonic
atonic
absence
myotonic
tonic

23

what is a tonic-clonic seizure

where the muscles are tense and the patient has convulsions

24

what are convulsions

uncontrolled shaking movements due to repeated contractions and relaxations of the muscles

25

what are generalised seizures

where the electrical discharge spreads throughout the whole brain

26

what is a tonic seizure

where the muscles become tense

27

what is an atonic seizure

where the muscle lose their tone e.g. the neck drops briefly

28

what is a myotonic seizure

where you get a sudden jerking movement

29

what is an absence seizure

where it seems as if youre day dreaming

30

what medication would you give to someone having a seizure

lorazepam or midazolam