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Phase 1 - S4 Nervous System > Psychiatry > Flashcards

Flashcards in Psychiatry Deck (53)
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1

what is anxiety

feeling of worry, nervousness or unease about something with an uncertain outcome

2

what are the symptoms of anxiety

palpitations, dry mouth, sweating, difficultly breathing, nausea and chest pain

3

what are the different types of anxiety disorder

social phobia, specific phobias, generalised anxiety disorder, panic disorder, OCD, PTSD

4

what are the 2 theories behind the causes of anxiety

decreased GABA or serotonin

5

what are the treatments for anxiety

SSRIs, benzodiazepines, CBT

6

how do SSRIs help in anxiety

these are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors which increase serotonin levels

7

how do benzodiazepines help in anxiety

increase GABA transmissions by enhancing GABA binding

8

why aren't benzodiazepines used long term

they are addictive and very dangerous in an overdose

9

how does cognitive behaviour therapy work

this is where you look at your current problems and change the way you think and behave about them

10

what is post traumatic stress disorder

this is an anxiety disorder which occurs within 6 months of a traumatic even of exceptional severity resulting in repetitive, intrusion recollections of the event

11

what is the theory behind the causes of PTSD

hyperactivity of the amygdala
low cortisol

12

what is the treatment for PTSD

SSRIs, benzodiazepine, CBT, eye movement desensitisation

13

what is OCD

an anxiety disorder where a person has both obsessive and compulsive traits

14

how is OCD diagnosed

if the patient has obsessions and compulsions of a repetitive and unpleasant nature, most days for a 2 week period
the patient will acknowledge these and cant resist them

15

what is the theory behind the causes of OCD

- re-entry circuits in the basal ganglia
- reduced serotonin
- PANDAS

16

what is PANDAS

paediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infection

this is where children have psychiatric problems following strep A infection

17

what are the treatments for OCD

CBT, exposure response prevention, high/long dose of SSRIs, clomipramine, deep brain stimulation

18

what is an obsession

a thought which persists and dominants and individuals thinking

19

what is a compulsion

obsessional impulse which leads directly to an action

20

what are the 2 types of psychosis

organic and functional

21

what is organic psychosis

where the brain changes in diseases to cause physical and behavioural/mood changes e.g. parkinsons, infection, tumour, epilepsy

22

what is functional psychosis

disorders in which there is behaviour changes with no physical brain changes e.g. anxiety and depression

23

what are some of the predisposing causes of depression

genetics, childhood experiences, female gender

24

what are some of the perpetuating causes of depression

stressful job, unemployment, substance misuse

25

what are some of the precipitating causes of depression

loss of family members, divorce, loss of health

26

what are the treatments for depression

SSRIs
CBT

27

what 2 neurotransmitters are thought to be affected in depression

serotonin and noradrenaline

28

what does the drug AMPT do

decreases noradrenaline production

29

which areas of the brain are thought to be affected in depression

limbic, prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia

30

what are some physical disorder which can cause depression

thyroid problems, vitamin B12 deficiency, chronic illness, alcohol/drug abuse