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ENT Year 2 Medicine > Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pathology Deck (48)
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1

Cholesteatoma

Collection of dead skin cells which become stuck in the ear, release enzymes which break down bone.

2

What usually happens to the ear drum preceding cholesteatoma?

Retraction of the ear drum creating pockets in which the dead skin cells can collect.

3

What nerve is affected in vestibular schwannoma ?

Vestibulocochlear nerve CN VIII within the temporal bone

4

What symptoms does someone present with in vestibular schwannoma?

Hearing loss
Tinitus
Dizziness

5

What should be considered if a young patient presents with bilateral vestibular schwannoma?

Neurofibromatosis type 2

6

What is neurofibromatosis type 2?

Autosomal dominant sporadic mutation
Encodes for the merlin protein

7

Where does the mutation occur in neurofibromatosis type 2?

Ch22q12

8

What clinical signs are present in neurofibromatosis type 2?

Cafe au lait spots
Cataracts

9

What are the causes of nasal polyps?

Allergic
Infection
Asthma
Nickel exposure

10

If a young patient <20 presents with nasal polyps what is the risk?

Cystic fibrosis

11

What is glomerulonephritis with polyangitis?

Small vessel vasculitis with necrosis (ulceration)

12

What is the clinical presentation of someone with glomerulonephritis and polyangitis?

SOB, wheeze, cough, Rhinorrhea, septal ulcers
Glomerulonephritis, Haematuria
Increased BP

13

Glomerulonephritis is pANCA +ve. T/F?

False
cANCA +VE

14

Why are most malignant tumours of the nose squamous cell carcinoma?

Irritation of the respiratory epithelium and subsequent metaplasia as squamous cells are more resistant to irritation.

15

Who are usually affected by sinonasal papillomas?

Over 50 male

16

What three types of sinonasal papillomas are there?

Inverted
Exophytic
Oncocytic

17

What factors increase the risk of sinonasal polyps?

HPV
Smoking
Organic solvents
Welding

18

What is primary presenting complaint of someone with sinonasal polyps?

Blocked nose

19

What is the risk of malignant change in sinonasal polyps?

Very low they very rarely undergo malignant change.

20

What has a strong causative link to nasopharyngeal carcinomas?

Ebsteinn barr virus
Volatile nitrosamines

21

What are risk factors for developing nasopharyngeal carcinomas?

Occupational exposure to hard wood dust, formaldehyde
Family history
Smoking
Alcohol
HPV

22

What is the prognosis for someone with nasopharyngeal carcinomas?

Highly malignant locally invasive with early lymphatic spread.

23

What cancer is Ebsteinn Barr virus linked to?

Hodgkins lymphoma
Excessive B cell proliferation due to T helper cells being hijacked by the virus.

24

What are laryngeal polyps?

A reactive change secondary to vocal abuse or infection

25

What endocrine condition can rarely present with laryngeal polyps?

Hypothyroidism

26

What two age groups are affected by squamous papillomas?

<5 years
20-40 years

27

How are children affected by squamous papilloma?

Usually a more aggressive disease profile but regresses during puberty
Risk of malignancy

28

What are some risk factors for childhood squamous papillomas?

vaginal delivery

29

In adults how do squamous papillomas present?

Often solitary papillomas.

30

How do squamous papillomas present histologically?

Finger like projections with a fibrovascular core and squamous cover.