Flashcards in Pathology Deck (48)
Collection of dead skin cells which become stuck in the ear, release enzymes which break down bone.
What usually happens to the ear drum preceding cholesteatoma?
Retraction of the ear drum creating pockets in which the dead skin cells can collect.
What nerve is affected in vestibular schwannoma ?
Vestibulocochlear nerve CN VIII within the temporal bone
What symptoms does someone present with in vestibular schwannoma?
What should be considered if a young patient presents with bilateral vestibular schwannoma?
Neurofibromatosis type 2
What is neurofibromatosis type 2?
Autosomal dominant sporadic mutation
Encodes for the merlin protein
Where does the mutation occur in neurofibromatosis type 2?
What clinical signs are present in neurofibromatosis type 2?
Cafe au lait spots
What are the causes of nasal polyps?
If a young patient <20 presents with nasal polyps what is the risk?
What is glomerulonephritis with polyangitis?
Small vessel vasculitis with necrosis (ulceration)
What is the clinical presentation of someone with glomerulonephritis and polyangitis?
SOB, wheeze, cough, Rhinorrhea, septal ulcers
Glomerulonephritis is pANCA +ve. T/F?
Why are most malignant tumours of the nose squamous cell carcinoma?
Irritation of the respiratory epithelium and subsequent metaplasia as squamous cells are more resistant to irritation.
Who are usually affected by sinonasal papillomas?
Over 50 male
What three types of sinonasal papillomas are there?
What factors increase the risk of sinonasal polyps?
What is primary presenting complaint of someone with sinonasal polyps?
What is the risk of malignant change in sinonasal polyps?
Very low they very rarely undergo malignant change.
What has a strong causative link to nasopharyngeal carcinomas?
Ebsteinn barr virus
What are risk factors for developing nasopharyngeal carcinomas?
Occupational exposure to hard wood dust, formaldehyde
What is the prognosis for someone with nasopharyngeal carcinomas?
Highly malignant locally invasive with early lymphatic spread.
What cancer is Ebsteinn Barr virus linked to?
Excessive B cell proliferation due to T helper cells being hijacked by the virus.
What are laryngeal polyps?
A reactive change secondary to vocal abuse or infection
What endocrine condition can rarely present with laryngeal polyps?
What two age groups are affected by squamous papillomas?
How are children affected by squamous papilloma?
Usually a more aggressive disease profile but regresses during puberty
Risk of malignancy
What are some risk factors for childhood squamous papillomas?
In adults how do squamous papillomas present?
Often solitary papillomas.