Pathology and Microbiology Flashcards Preview

Respiratory > Pathology and Microbiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pathology and Microbiology Deck (140):
0

How can chlamydophila be detected?

- ELISA for ag
- PCR
- Kosters of fluorescein-labelled ab

1

What does chlamydophila cause most commonly?

conjunctivitis in cats (c. felis)
- nasal discharge
- progression to interstitial bronchopnumonia
> also abortion in sheep, bird disease, zoonotic

2

What does chlamydophila cause in the dog?

- does not affect the dog

3

Is chlamydophila vax available?

Yes for cats - Fel-O-Vax 4 or 5

4

What type of bacteria is chlamydophila?

- Gram -ve (outer membrane present)
- INTRACELLULAR (people used to think was a virus)
- No growth on lab media (need cells)

5

What do chlamydophila form during their lifecycle?

- reticular bodies

6

What is the most common disease associated with mycoses?

Aspergillosis
- canine nasal aspergillosis

7

Why is dx of aspergillosis difficult?

The fungus is present everywhere! Bread, walls etc. so detecting the fungus does not indicate pathology associated
- compile radiology, endoscopy, serology, culture, microscopy

8

Tx of canine nasal aspergillosis?

- surgical delivery of antifungal

9

Pathophysiology of nasal aspergillosis? DDx?

- nasal turbinates progressively destroyed
- chronic and granulomatous (and eosinophilic) inflammation
- yellow-green mycotic exudate in the caudal nasal cavity
- may be unilateral
> Ddx nasal carcinoma

10

How can fungal infections be identified?

Fungal hyphae stain
- PAS stain (pink)
- silver Grocott stain (black)
> asexual sporing heads seen on microscopy typical of aspergillosis
> numerous fungal hyphae on histopath

11

Which dogs are predisposed to canine nasal aspergillosis?

GSD

12

What can be carried out to ensure tx will be effective? Common practice?

- antifungal sensitivity testing
- rarely done!

13

Which viruses commonly affect the resp tract of sheep and cattle?

- bovine herpesvirus
- respiratory syncytial virus
- bovine parainfluenza virus

14

Which bacteria commonly infect the respiratory tract of cattle and sheep?

- manhaemia
- pasturella
- histophilus
- mycobacterium
- mycoplasma
- actinomyces
- actinobacillus

15

What factors may impact resp disease? What disease complexes are generally seen in diffreent species?

- crowding
- virus (usually inciting cause)
-bacteria
- stress
- poor ventilation
> porcine respiratoy disease complex
> bovine/ovine respiratory disease complex
> kennel cough

16

What is bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) also known as?

Shipping fever
Enzootic pnuemonia

17

Which pathogens are involved in BRDC?

- PI3 (bovine parainfluenza virus)
- RSV (respiratory syncytial virus)
- IBR (bovine herpesvirus)
- Mycoplasma bovis
> followed by
- pasturella multocida
- mannhaimia haemolytica (used to be called pasturella or pasturellosis)

18

What does bovine herpesvirus cause?

- infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR)
- red nose
> URT infection
> fibrinous laryngitis and tracheitis
> intranuclear viral inclusions

19

Iss BHV (IBR) vaccine available?

YEs

20

What family is BRSV in?

Paramyxoviridae

21

What does BRSV cause?

(Bovine Respiratory Syncitial Virus)
- URT infections
- bronchitis/bronchiolitis sometimes
> syncitia formation and membrane formation to allow replication in cytoplasm and evade immune response

22

What family is bovine parainfluenza virus?

Paramyxoviridae

23

What is bovine parainfluenza virus also called?

parainfluenza 3 (PI3)

24

What does PI3 cause?

URT infections (mild)

25

Are vax available for PI3?

Yes

26

What diseases does manheimia haemolytica cause?

- epizootic pneumonia in cattle "shipping fever" (bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis)
- pasteurellosis in sheep

27

What is one sybtype of mainheimia haemolytica also called?

- P. trehalosii

28

Is mannheimia haemolytica a commensal?

YES! NAsopharynx of ruminants

29

Gross path of manheimia haemoltica?

-Cranioventral lung consolidation
-fibrinosupparative effusion with neutrophils
- lots of yellowy fibrin indicates pasturella or manheimia!
> bronchopnumonia

30

What are the 2 main pathologic mechanisms of manheimia haemolytica?

- lipopolysacharide
- leucotoxin

31

What are the 2 pathogens involved in 80% bovine respiratory diseases?

- m. haemolytica
- p. multocida

32

What other pathologies may m. haemolytica and p. multocida cause?

- meningitis and polyarthritis in 2-4mo calves
- sporadic cases of peracute fatal mastitis in cow if suckling calves trasnfer organis
- pasteurellosis in lambs septicaemia, severe pleuritis and pericarditis
- mastitis (severe) insheep and goats

33

Can cattle develop natural protection against m. haemolytica?

Yes
- Abs against leukotoxin and capsular polysacharide

34

Are vax effective against m. haemolytica?

- bacterins, leukotoxin: NO
- Iron restricted OMP in combination with leukotoxin: potentially effective (as express transferrin binding protein)

35

Where is histophilus somni a commensal?

genital tract
transient in upper respiratory tract

36

What does histophilus somni cause? Common disease?

- peracute death in young calves
- acute thromboembolic meningoencephalitis (will learn in neuro)
- pneumonia
- myocarditis
> depending on where thromboemboli lodge
* disease common in UK*

37

WHat type of bacteria causes TB?

Mycobacterium
- Gram + with mycolic acid protective coating
- hence "acid fast" and require ZN stain
> strict anaerobes, very slow growing
> resistant to drying and chemical agents
> virulent species fully resist intracellular killing

38

What 2 types of mycobacterium exist?

Pathogenic
Atypical environmental saprophytes

39

control of tb?

test and slaughter

40

Pathogenesis of bovine TB?

- chronic eventually fatal pneumonia and wasting

41

where is tb commonest?

areas of intensive dairy practice

42

How is TB transmitted?

- animal shedding into environment
> "open case"
- continuous shedding into the environment form lesions excreting to the exterior eg. kidney, udder, faeces, respiratory secretions

43

How is incidence of Tb changing?

Increasing in UK

44

Dx of bovine TB??

- comp ID test by injection if PPD
- new methods eg. IFNg release form cultured bovine leucocytes on contact with PPD (looking at lymphocytes)

45

What is PPD?

Purified protein derivative

46

Gross path of bovine TB?

- granulomatous pneumonia and lymphadenitis
- multifocal nodules have characteristic caseating cheesey cut surface

47

What immune cells are involved in TB pathophysiology?

Macrophages (NOT NEUTROPHILS!)

48

DO badgers definitely spread TB to cattle?

Not sure

49

Can dogs be infected with huga6mtgbTVNGBWI TBIJQ

YES
ACT AAS SENTINELS FOR OWNERS
NICE DOGS

50

on a scale of 1 to sexy how sexy is hannah?

pnoot

51

which strain of TB can infect widest range of hosts? (m. tuberculosis, m. bovis, m. avium)

M. bovis

52

What are the smallest living bacteria?

mycoplasma sp.

53

Where do mycoplasma sp. infect? Pathogenesis and implications on farm? What disease are they associated with?

Mucosal surfaces
- acquire host antigen to evade the immune response
- infection may depress performance and v growth/yield etc.
> associated with BRDC

54

Growth of mycoplasma - appearance and difficulty?

- difficult to grow
- fried egg appearance
- no cell wall -> NOT susceptable to B-lactam ABx

55

What mycoplasma species affects cattle and what does it cause?

- Mycoplasma Bovis [NB DO NOT CONFUSE WITH MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS!!!!]
- arthritis, mastitis, pneumonia

56

WHere are mycoplasma commensals?

respiratory tract

57

Pathology of mycoplasma

- CUffing pneumonia in calves
- calf pneumonia complex
- chronic, no necrosis
- lymphoid follicles hyperplastic (BALT bronchial associated lymphoid tissue normally surrounds bronchioles)
-> may lead to bronchiectasis and 2* atelectasis
* do not kill animal*

58

Gross and micro pathology of mycoplasma pneumoina?

>Gross
- progressive cranioventral consolidation
- cut surface exudate in main airways of affected lobules with thickening of surrounding connective tissue
> Micro
- lymphoid nodules and follicles around airways (may compress bronchioles)
- mixed cellular exudate
- partial atelectasis
- slight thickening of alveolar walls with lymphocytes

59

Which mycoplasma is notifiable?

- m. mycoides mycoides
- contagious pleuropneumonia
> serious disease in asia, africa, s. europe
> mortality ~50% in indiginous breed cattle
> transmission by aerosol or close contact
> similar disease in goats M. Capricolum

61

Pathology of contagious pleuropneumonia (CBPP) M. Mycoides?

- fibrino-necrotic bronchopneumonia with fibrinous pleuritis
- dorsocaudal areas may be affected
- interstitial septa markedly widened by fibrinous exudate and oedema, and often seen UNILATERALLY (pathonomonic)
- necrotic areas encapsulated (sequestra)
*WILL KILL ANIMALS*

62

Which species of mycoplasma cause MINOR problems in sheep and goats?

- M. ovipeumoniae (pneumonia)
- M. capricolum (pneumonia)
- M mycoides capri (pneumonia)

63

3 main respiratory viruses of sheep? Are any vaccine licensed for these?

- PI3 (parainfluenza virus) - occasionally causes pneumonia in lambs
- RSV (respiratory syncitial virus)
- adenoviruses (ovine and bovine)
> may predispose to manheimia haemolytica infection as part of enzootic pneumonia complex
> no vaccines licensed

64

Which fungi are associated with resp disease in cattle and sheep?

- aspergillus
- micropolysporum
> respiraotry allergy
"farmer's lung"
- type 1: rhinitis and fungal astham, type 3: allergic alveolitis
- may be chronic or acute

65

Which bacteria are assocaited with respiratory disease in horses?

- strep equi equi
- rhodococcus
- actinobacillus
- mycoplasmas

66

Which viruses are associated with respiratory disease in horses?

- equine influenza virus
- equine herpes virus 1 and 4

67

What type of bacteria is strep equi equi?

- G+ obligate horse parasite, carried in nasopharynx without disease
- lancefield group C
- strongly b haemolytic with mucoid colonies, hyaluronic acid capsule

68

What disease dows strep equi equi cause and what immunity is necessary to prevent it?

strangles
- circulating Ab raised by infection or vaccination
- muscoal immunity essential

69

What drug is strep equi equi sensitive to?

Penicillin (but hard to peentrate abscesses with it!)

70

pathology of strangles technically described as..

supparative lymphadenitis and gutteral pouch empyema
- may be termed gutteral pouch chondrosis as resembles cartilage

71

Which vaccines are availble against strangles? Are they effective?

> strepguard
- useless
> Equilis strep E
- live modified bacteria
- effective but only for short lived mucosal immunity

72

Is strep pneumoniae infection comon?

No
- may occassionaly cause resp disease in training horses

73

What type of bacteria is rhodococcus equi? Where is it found?

G+ rod, variably acid fast
- naturally present in soil and intestines of horses
- persistent in manure for long periods of time

74

Alternative name for rhodococcus equi?

Corynebacterium equi

75

What disease does rhodococcus equi cause? What age horse is affected?

- chronic supparative bronchopneumonia in foals 2-6mo
*adults are immune*

76

Pathogenesis of rhodococcus equi? Prognosis?

- resists host digestion by complex lipid cell wall,facultative intracellular replicating inside macrophages
-> foci of caseous necoriss in lungs and sometimes bronchial LNs
- lesions often extensive before clinical signs apparent
- 40-80% mortality
- spread to abdo organs can occour eg. liver and intestin, mesenteric LNs
*Adults are immune*

77

What do rhodococcus lesions appear similar to?

TB (horses much less suceptable to TB)

78

What horses are affected by actinobacillus?

Adults esp TBs

79

Which mycoplasma may be involved in equine resp disease?

- M. felis relevant in pleuritis and predisposition to 2* infect

80

How are influenza viruses classified?

- haemaglutanin and neuraminidase eg. H7N7, H3N8 in horses

81

What does EIV cause? (equine influenza virus)

- URTI can spread to LRT -> bronchitis and bronchiolitis
- cough, pyrexia, depression
- 2* infection (strep, staph, klebsiella) most important to pathogenesis

82

EIV vax available?

- inactivated vaccine containing both H7N7 and H3N8 sybtypes but not effective against all strains
* requirement for competing horses UK

83

Which equine herpesviruses cause resp disesae? Clinical signs? What other signs may be seen with each?

1 + abortion and paresis
4 + mainly resp, most common
5 - equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis NEW!
> URTI
> nasal discharge, coughing, pyrexia

84

Vax available for EHV?

- innactivated vax for EHV1 and EHV 4

85

What fungus is associated with equine gutteral pouch mycoses?

aspergillus nidulans

86

Clinical signs of gutteral pounch mycosis

- severe epistaxis (internal carotid) *v serious*
- dysphagia (glossopharyngeal and vagus nn.)

87

Diagnostics for investigating gutteral pouch mycosis?

- endoscopy
- radiography
- serology
- culture
- microscpy

88

Tx of gutteral pouch mycosis

- Local delivery of antifungals
- ligation of carotid
- systematic azole antifungal

89

Bacterial respiratory disease of pigs

- bordatella/pasturella
- actinobacillus
- haemophilus
- mycoplasmas

90

Viral respiratory disease of pigs

- porcine reproductive and respiratory sydrome virus (PRRSV)
- swine influenza
- porcine circovirus

91

What causes atrophic rhinitis in pigs?

> early colonisation of nasal planum with
- Bordatella Bronchiseptica (dermonecrotic toxin damages osteoblasts -> turbinate atrophy)
- and Pasturella Multocida (osteolytic toxin stimulates osteoclasts -> atrophic rhinitis)
- produce osteolytic toxin
-> malformed twisted snout in growing pigs and ^ risk 2* disease

92

Is atrophic rhinitis common?

Not any more (effective vax)

93

What pathogen causes contagious pleurpneumonia?

- actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae
- G- rod

94

Pathogenesis of actinobacillus pleuropneumonia? Which species get this commonly?

- acute/chronic fibrinohaemorrhagic/necrotic bronchopneumonia with pleuritis (pleurisy) and pleural adhesions due to fibrin deposition
- all lung lobes (cranioventral distribution may not be evident similar to M. haemolytica in cattle)
- intensive PIG production
- worldwide distribution
- high morbidity and mortality if newly introduced to the herd, progresses to chronic status with sporadic cases
- subclinical carriers and recovered carriers with degrees of immunity

95

Is fibrin deposition seen with mycoplasma?

only m. mycoides, otherwise no

96

how is actinobacillus pleurppneumoniae grown in the lab? how many serotypes exist?

- chocolate agar (NAD dependant)
- waxy, sticky colonies, delicate G- organism
- 15 serotypes

97

pathogenicity factors of actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae?

- apx toxins
- capsule polysacharide
- takes iron from porcine transferrin
> pulmonary inflam stimulated -> haemorrhage and oedema

98

Vax available for actinobacillus pleuropnuemoniae?

- suvaxyn HPP no longer available
- porcillis APP no available in UK but effective

99

Which pathogens can cause disease in high health status animals?

- actinobacillus suis
- haemophilus parasuis

100

Which pathogen causes glassers disease? Clinical signs?

- haemophilus parasuis
- multisystemic disease of pigs
- polyserositis (pleuritis, pericarditis, peritonitis) meningitis, polyarthritis and supparative bronchopneumonia with fibrinous exudate in high health status animals
- mortality high in young animals

101

Predisposing factors for Glassers disease?

- stress eg. mixing, weaning, adverse environmental conditions

102

What does mycoplasma hyopneumoniae cause?

- enzootic pneumonia (EP)
- wipdespread and v common in young pigs
- predisposes other resp disease
- transmission by aerosol -> coughing -> resolves

103

Pathology of mycoplasma hypopneumoniae infections in pigs

- enzootic pneumonia
- chronic, non-fatal disease unless 2* disease sets in
- commonly seen at slaughter
- v growth rate and coughing
> cranioventral consolidation (apical and cardiac lobes,) red/grey discolouration, bronchopnuemonia
> microscopic features similar to cuffing pneumonia in calves

104

Is m. hyopneumoniae easy to culture? Alternative dx?

No difficult and slow
- serological dx by competition ELISA

105

Vax for m. hyopneumoniae?

Yes, very efffective
- eg. Stellamune
Strategic medication is common

106

Which other mycoplasmas may affect the pig and what do they cause?

- m. hyosynoviae: arthritis
- m. hyorhinis: commonly found in resp tract, cause of polyserositis and arthritis

107

What type of virus is PRRS?

- arteriviridae

108

PRRS clinical signs and pathogenesis?

- URT, systemic spread in macrophages
- resp signs, interstital pneumonia
- frequently subclinical
- predisposes/enhances effects of infection with other pathogens (eg. influenza, m. hyopneumoniae)
*highly pathogenic varient recently emerged in E. Asia

109

What is PRRS part of?

Porcine respiratory disease complex

110

Clinical signs of swine influenza?

- sudden outbreaks of respiratory disease
- barking cough
- resp disease
- naive herds
- bronchiolitis and pneumonia
> if endemic in herds, weaned piglets develop clinical signs as soon as MDA wanes

111

Is swine influenza a 1* pathogen?

- 1* pathogen
- if endemic may also contribute to porcine respiratory disease complex

112

Vaccines for swine influezna?

None licensed

113

Why is swine influenza dangerous?

Zoonotic risk

114

PAthogenesis of porcine circovirus?

- immune suppressive
- predisposes other infections
> possible involvement in:
- porcine respiratory disease complex
- post weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PSWS)
- porcine dermatitis and nephropathy sydrome (PDNS)
= PCAD

115

Vax for porcine circovirus?

2 in UK

116

Where is bacteria normally present within the resp tract?

Upper only - lower should be sterile (bronchi onwards)

117

BActeria normally present in URT...

> strep (non-/a-/b- haemolytic)
- pasteurella [b]
> staph (coag+/-)
- E. COli
- Actinobacillus
- Proteus
- Bordatella
- Pseudomonas
- Neisseria
- Lactobacillus
- Clostridium
- Bacillus
- Mycoplasmas
- Chlamydophila
> not exhaustive so many more too!!

118

How does viral resp infection differ to bacterial?

- viruses commonly spread URT -> LRT (bronchitis-bronchiolitis)
- bacteria may preferentially infect LRT only
> NB. all viruses predispose to 2* bacterial infections which may be more likely to cause morbitity

119

How may infections be classified?

- 1*/2* (2* more important)
- pure/mixed

120

Main pathogens causing resp disease in smallies?

- Bordatella
- Pasteurella
- Actinomyces and nocardia (branching)
- Chlamydophila
-B Haemolytic strep (?)
- Mycoplasmas

121

4 species of Bordatella?

- b. bronchiseptica
- b. pertussis (whooping cough humans, NOT animals)
- b. parapertussis (humans and sheep)
- b. avium (coryza in turkeys, not UK)

122

What type of bacteria is bordatella bronchiseptica? How is it spread?

- strict aerobe
- G- rod
- slow growing
- commensal of URT
> endogenous/exogenous infection, survival outside host is poor

123

What diseases is b. bronchiseptica associated with?

- tracheaobronchitis (KC)
- bronchopneumonia following distemper infection (rarer now due to vax)

124

Vax for b. bronchiseptica? Is this cross protective across strains?

- Intrac (? efficacy)
- Nobivac KC
> all strains have same LPS so will cross protect after vax or infection
> BUT NO VAX VERY EFFECTIVE

125

Does b. bronchiseptica affect the cat? Vax?

- yes, early exposure to kittens
- link between b.b. and disease unclear
> vax: Nobivac BB

126

PAthogenesis of b. bronchiseptica?

- initial trauma or viral infection
- adherance to cilia
- proliferation and toxin release -> irritation and coughing, destruction of inflam cells (leucocyte toxin)
- epithelial necrosis
- peribronchial inflammation and interstitial pneumonia with chronic infection (not true interstitial pneumonia)
- severe pneumonia due to 2* pathogens eg. b-haemolytic strep s. zooepidemicus

127

Distribution of pneumonia seen with b. bronchiseptica?

- cranioventral

128

What type of bacteria is pasteurella multocida?

- G- rod
- firms mucoid colonies
- strong catarrhal smell
- normal oral bacteria
-> 2* infection in URTI and bite wounds

129

Is vax against pasteurella multocida available?

No, not appropriate
- as noramly present in URT

130

Pathogenesis of pasteurella multocida in dogs and cats

- severe supparative pneumonia and pleuritis (pyothorax/empyema)
- seen following cat bite wounds
- important in MIXED infections eg. anaerobes like clostridia

131

Does pasteurella multocida affect other species?

- Rabbit snuffles (enzootic pasteurellosis)
- endemic in rabbit population (often no clinical signs)
- some rabbits not infected but difficult to eradicate disease as highly contagious
> chronic nasal discharge and sneezing, epiphora, chronic supparative rhinitis and sinusitis, abscessates in lungs, sometimes fatal
> colonises U/LRT, middle ear, sinuses, genitaloia, occasionally lungs (CILIOTROPIC)

132

How may rabbit snuffles be controlled?

- vax available but ineffective
- long term Abx (enrofloxacin) needed for control/eradication in an individual

133

How does the physiology of a rabbit abscess differ from other animals?

- have heterophils instead of neutrophils
- tend to form cottage cheese, dry abscesses (not watery pus)

134

What type of bacteria is actinomyces viscosus?

- G+, filamentous and branching
- aerobic
- commensal in oral cavity of dog

135

What does actinomyces viscosus cause?

- granulomatous thoracic infection in dogs
- EXUDATE CONTAINING SULPHUR GRANULES!!
- localised granulomatous abscesses of skin (chronic and progressive)

136

What type of bacteria are nocardia spp? Pathogenesis?

- G+ rods, short but filamentous
- partially acid fast
- growth within and destruction of macrophages
> supparative chronic, progressive thoracic granulomas

137

Which antimicrobials are nocardia spp. resistnat to?

- penicillin and others
- need TMP, tetracycline, ampicillin prolonged use

138

Where are actinomyces and nocardia found naturally?

soil

139

pathogenesis of nocardiosis?

- red-brown exudate in pleural cavity (strawberry milkshake)
- may form adhesions
- EXUDATE CONTAINS SULPHUR GRANULES!!
> yellow lumps, not actually sulphur

140

What may nocardiosis be confused with?

- tumour as causes a chronic wasting disease