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Flashcards in Radiography Respiratory Deck (37):
0

What may a rounded lung lobe with pleural effusion indicate?

More proteinaceous effusion (not for definite)

1

Causes of mediastinal shift? Or apparent mediastinal shift?

- unilaterla pleural effusion/pnumothorax
-diaphragmatic hernia
- collapsed lung lobes
- chronic pleural disease with adhesions
- sternalvertebral abnormalities
> NB: oblique projection may give impression of shift

2

What structure lie in the mediastinum? * those that can be seen on rads?

- trachea*
- oesophegous
- heart*
- caudal VC *
- cranial VC
- aorta and major branches (brachiocephalic trunk)
- thoracic duct
- LNs
- Nerves

3

What result of injection in the neck may present with thoracic changes? How would this be seen on rads and what may occour 2* to this?

- pnuemomediastinum
- ^ visability of BVs, oesophagous and tracheal wall
> 2* gas lucency in neck fascial planes, thoracic wall and pneumoperitoneum
> CAN lead to to pneumothorax (But not the other way round)

4

Width of normal mediastinum?

< 2x thoracic vertebra width
* exception: bulldogs, may be fatter normally

5

Causes of widened mediastinum?

- bulldogs
- obesity
- thymic sail in young animals
- hameorrhage
- mediastinal/ascess
- oedema
- chylomediastinum
- mediastinal masses

6

WHat mediastinal masses may be present?

- thymus in young animals
- neoplasia
- oesephageal dilation
- sternal lymphadenopathy
- abscess/granuloma
-haematoma
- cyst

7

What are the most common positions of mediastinal masses? What are the likely causes at each position?

1. cranial to heart under trachea
- thymoma, lymphoma, haemangiosarcoma, could be abscess/cyst)
2. tracheobronchial lympho nodes dorsal to trachea and at bifurcation
3. caudo ventral thorax
- diaphragmatic hernia
4. dorsocaudal thorax
-hiatal hernia or gastraoesophageal hiatal hernia

8

Which side should trachea lie to?

right hand side

9

What may cause diaphragmatic diplacement?

> caudal
- inspiration
- pnuemothorax
- emphysema
> cranial
- ascite
- hepatomegaly
- abdominal neoplasia
- obesity
- gastric distension

10

Potential radiographic signs fof diaphragmatic hernia?

- incomplete visualisation of diaphragm
- enlarged cardiac silhouette (PPDH)
- caudal mediastinal mass (PMDH)
- extrapleural mass
- cranial displacement/malposition of abdominal viscera
- pleural effusion

11

What are the most radiodense structures in the lung?

Pulmonary arteries and veins
- branch and taper in the periphery

12

What further problems shold be suspected if pneumothorax seen?

- trauma eg. rib fx
- urinary bladder visable?

13

What should be suspected if pleural fluid seen?

- tracheal/lobar dispalcement suggestive of mass?
- cranial displaceent of abdo viscera?

14

What should be looked for if cardiac enlargement suspected?

- cardiac failure signs eg. ukonary oedema, hepatomegaly, ascites

15

What hsould be suspected if ventral lung is consolidated?

- oesophageal dilation

16

What should be suspected if minimal pulmonary lesions are found in a coughing animal?

Laryngeal or tracheal lesions

17

What appearances may be seen on rads of URT? 5

1. normal nasal passages (eg. acute rhinitis)
2. areas of ^ soft tissue opacity on NORMAL conchal pattern (eg. chornic rhinitis, nasal FB)
3. areas ^ soft tissue opacity superimposed on areas of CONCHAL DESTRUCTION
4. ares v opacity due to conchal destruction
5. mixed

18

Which lesions OCCUPY the upper airway?

- FB
- mucosal nodules due to oslerus osleri
- neoplasia

19

Which lesions cause NARROWING of the upper airway?

- tracheal hypoplasia
- collapsing trachea
- thickened tracheal membrane (severe tracheitis)
- submucosal haemorrhage (coumarin toxicity)
- neoplasia

20

Which lesions may cause NARROWING and DISPLACEMENT of the upper airway?

- retropharyngeal lymphadenopathy
- mediastinal mass

21

POtneital pulmonary patterns visable on radiograph? Defining features?

- bronchial (affects bronchi only)
- vascular (affects vessels only)
- interstital (patchy and rough looking, CAN STILL SEE VESSELS)
- alveolar (fluffy and cloud like, NO VESSELS VISABLE)

22

Stages of bronchial pattern visable?

- none
- normal
- thickened (donuts and tramlines)
- bronchiectasis (end stage of all pumonary inflammatory disorders)

23

What may cause bronchial patterns?

- bronchial mineralisation (normal ageing process)
- allergic bronchitis
- chronic bronchitis
- peri bronchial cuffing (oedema, bronchopneumonia)

24

hat causes interstitial patterns?

- pneumonia
- oedema
- haemorrhage (any cause)
- neoplasia

25

What vascular patterns are possible and what causes them?

- enlarged arteries: pulmonary hypertension (R-L shunt PDA, dirofilariasis)
- enlarged veins: congestion (mitral insufficiency)
- aa and vv. enlarged: overcirculation (L-R shunt, overhydration)
- SMALL aa. and vv. : hypovolaemia, tetrology of fallot

26

Causes of alveolar pattern?

Lack of air in the alvioli -> NO visibility of vessels
> localised
- bronchopneumonia
- oedema
- hmeorrhage
- neoplasia
- lung collapse/atelactasis
- dirofilaria
- pulmonary infarct
> diffuse
- severe bronchopneumonia
- severe oedema
- hamoerrhage
* near drowning
* smoke inhalation

27

Causes of lung hyperlucency?

> diffuse
- overexposure
- weight loss
- hypovolaemia
- overinflation
- air trapping
- emphysema
> focal
- bulla
- lobar emphysea
- pulmonary embolism

29

Causes of calcifed lung lesions?

> focal/multifocal
- bronchial calcification (not pathological)
- PHBF
- granuloma
- osteosarcoma mets
- 1* lung neoplasia
- aspirated barium sulfate
> diffuse
- HAC
- HPTH
- chronic uraemia
- idiopathic

30

What is contained within the mediastinum?

(formed by reflection of parietal pleura)
- trachea
- heart
- oesophagus
- aorta and major braches
- thoracic duct
- LNs
- nerves

31

What should you be able to see within the mediastinum on a normal radiograph?

- caudal vena cava, aorta, cardiac silhouette

32

Causes of mediastinal shift?

> pressure difference in left and right pleural cavities
- unilateral lung collapse
- diaphragmatic hernia
- collapsed lung lobes
- chronic pleural space disease with adhesions
- sternal and vertebral abnormalities
* NB. Oblique positioning may give impression of mediastinal shift

33

What may be seen with pneumoomediastinum?

- increased visability of oesophagus, tracheal wall and blood vessels (cranial vena cava, brachiocephalic trunk)

34

What may occour 2* to pneumomediastinum?

- gas lucency in fascial planes of neck
- pneumoperitoneum
- pneumothorax (but not vice versa)

35

WHat width should the normal mediastinum be?

- =/<2x thoracic vertebra width
- exception: bulldogs wider mediastinum

36

causes of widened mediastinum?

- bulldog
- obesity
- thymic sail in young animals
- haemorrhage
- mediastinitis/abscess
- oedema
- chylomediastinum
- mediastinal mass

37

What masses may be present in the mediastinum?

- thymus (young)
- neoplasia
- oesophageal dilation
- sternal lymphadenopathy
- abscess/granuloma
- haematoma
- cyst