Flashcards in Companion Animal Lungworm Deck (28):
Which lungworm affects horses?
Which lungworms affect the dog?
- Angiostrongylus vasorum
- Filaroides (Oslerus) Osleri
Which lungworm affects the cat?
Where is adult dictyocaulus arnfieldi found? Clinical signs?
- horses smaller bronchi
> chronic cough
Pathogenicity of d. arnfieldi?
- raised areas over-inflated pulmonary tissue (surrounding small bronchus, containing worms and mucopurulent exudate)
- hyperplastic bronchial epithelium
- pericbronchial cuffing
Diagnosis of equine lungworm?
> clinical signs
> grazing hx (donkey contact/shared grazing)
> feacal exam only detects patent infection (= v small proportion of equine infections)
- process immediately (McMaster method, embryonated egg)
- process later (BAerman technique, L1, tail spine)
> trach wash (large eosinophils)
> response to anthelmintic tx (retrospective dx)
Control of equine lungworm? (D. Arnfieldi)
- do not keep on pastures grazed by donkeys
- tx donkeys with appropriate anthelmintics in spring eg. Ivermectin
What type of worm is angiostrongylus vasorum?
- typical metastrongyle nematode
- indirect lifecycle (slugs and snails)
- adult worms 2cm, in pulmonary aa. and RHS heart
Clnical significance/pathogenesis of angiostrongylus vasorum?
- Cardiorespiratory signs
- Neurological signs
CLinical signs of angiostrongylus vasorum in dogs?
> chronic condition, 3 syndromes
- CV-resp signs in young dogs (chronic cough, excercise intolerance due to bv blockage)
- coagulopathies (subcut haematomas, internal haemorrhage eg. sclera and retinas, prolonged bleeding due to thrombocytopaenia and v clotting factors)
- neuro signs (paresis, behavioural changes, ataxia, loss of vision, seizures due to CNS haemorrhage)
What will be seen on rads with a. vasorum?
peripheral lung lobe lesions - bronchial and peribronchial infiltrate
How may angiostrongylus vasorum be diagnosed from body fluid samples?
- Baerman technique of feaces and sputum for larvae L1
> larval recovery unreliable
> long PPP 6-10 weeks
> intermittent egg production by adults (collect 3d of samples)
How can a. vasorum be diagnosed using bloods?
- hypochromic anaemia
- coagulopathy test
- ELISA serology (eg. AngioDetect)
How can A. vasorum be diagnosed PM?
- adult worms
- lungs mottled reddish purple
- subcut haematoma
- larger bv endoartitis -> fibrosis
- R ventricle endocarditis -> tricuspid vlave
Tx of angiostrongylus?
> 2 anthelmintics licensed in UK for dogs
- Moxidectin (advocate) single dose prevents infection for 1 month
- Milbemycin (milbemax) weekly for 4 weeks
> off label
- Fenbendazole (panacur) daily 1-3 weeks
> monitor tx, repeat if necesary
> tx early during lifecycle minimises pathological dmage
> supportive tx (fluid tx, blood, bronchodilators, oxygen, abx)
Control of a. vasorum?
- regular anthelmintic tx based on risk assessment
- control IH (not really possible!)
- public education
What type of worm is Filaroides (Oslerus) osleri? where do adult worms live and how are they transmitted?
ATYPICAL metastrongyloid nematode
- direct lifecycle
- adult worms live in tracheal nodules
- transmission bitch to puppy during grooming
CLinical significance of filaroides (oslerus) osleri?
- may be asymptomatic
- may have dry debilitating cough
> often associated with breeding kennels
Dx of filaroides osleri?
> Baerman technique to recover L1 (distnictive dorsal indentation) BUT]
- L sluggish and low numbers so few picked up
- tracheal nodules
Tx of filaroides osleri?
- Fenbendazole (panacur)
(licensed, 50mg/kg SID for 7d)
Are cats commonly infected with lungworm? Which worm?
- not common
- Aelurostrongylus abstrusus
What type of worm is Aelurostrongylus abstrusus? Where do adult worms live?
Typical metastrongyloid nematode
- indirect lifecycle (slugs, snails)
- adults live in lung parenchyma and small bronchioles
Clinical significance of Aelurostrongylus?
- may be asymptomatic
- may cause serious respiratory problems
Pathogenesis and diagnosis of aelurostrongylus? Prognosis?
- often asymptomatic
- severe resp problems may be seen with immunocompromised cats (poor prog)
> feacal exam (Baerman technique for L1)
> PM greenish nodules in lnungs
> histopath to differentiate from TB!
Tx of aelurostrongylus abstrusus?
- fenbendazole (panacur)
- licensed 50mg/kg SID 3d
Which respiratory parasites other than lungworm affect the horse? *most common
- *parascaris equorum(migrating larvae)
- echinococcus granulosus (hydatid cysts)
Which respiratory pathogens other than lungworm affect the dog? *most common
- *toxocara canis (migrating L)
- *toxascaris leonina (migrating L)
- Crenosoma vulpis (fox lungworm)
- Filaroides spp. (dog lungworm - parenchyma)
- Lingualata serrata (tongue worm)
- pneumonyssus caninum (nasal mite)