Flashcards in Pathology II Deck (26):
What type of inflammation accompanies chronic bronchitis?
lymphocytic inflammation, along with the cardinal symptom of excessive mucus production (as opposed to eosinophillic infiltrate in asthma
Describe the type of collagen that is laid down in basement membrane thickening during asthma.
type I and III are deposited instead of the normal type IV
What are Curschmann spirals and Charcot-Leyden crystals? What disease are they characteristic of?
whorls of shed epithelium in mucus plugs
Classify and describe Loffler Syndrome.
simple pulmonary eosinophilia with transient pulmonary lesions, peripheral (blood) eosinophilia, benign course
Describe the symptoms and clinical data associated with acute eosinphilic pneumonia with respiratory failure.
rapid onset of illness of unknown cause presenting with fever, dyspnea and hypoxemic reparatory failure which responds to corticosteriods
BAL >25% eosinophils, CXR shows diffuse infiltrates
Define bronchiectasis by describing the symptoms and mechanism(s) of disease. What are some possible causes?
permanent dilation of bronchi/bronchioles caused by destruction of muscle and elastic tissue due to repeated bouts of inflammation, associated with chronic necrotizing infection (TB, Staph, Aspergillus)
Causes: obstruction by tumor or foreign body, hereditary dysfunction of mucus (CF) or kartageners (cilia).
What defect causes primary cilia dyskinesia?
AR defect in dyne in arms of cilia (present in ½ patients with Kartageners syndrome: bronchiectasis, sinusitis, situs inversus)
CRTR is a ______ channel but regulates multiple ion channels including facilitating the movement of ____ ions.
What are the 3 striking pathological features of CF lung?
mucus plugging, bronchiectasis, consolidation (due to infection), pseudomonas is a common infection and causes green color from metabolite
Name 4 common causes of pulmonary fibrosis.
chronic injury or recurrent acute injury
interstitial lung disease
What is the key mediator that is released from injured type I alveolar epithelial cells in IPF?
it is an important inhibitor of caveolin (natural inhibitor of collagen deposition) AND acts to reduce telomerase
Name two pathologic characteristics of a section of IPF lung.
temporal heterogeneity (key feature of UIP) consists of both:
new (active) fibrosis called fibroblastic foci
old (collagenized) dense fibrosis
Discuss the two geometric forms of asbestosis and how their characteristics modulate disease risk.
amphibole: more pathogenetic because it is more aerodynamic (penetrates deeper in lung) and is less soluble
serpentine: less pathogenic because of curly shape (less penetrant) and is more soluble (able to be removed from lung)
Asbestos fibers become coated with iron and calcium which is why it is often referred to as a ______ ______.
What two qualities of a mesothelioma can be used to confirm by lab test that the growth is mesothelioma?
mesothelioma does not produce TTF-1 thyroid transcription factor like lung tissue does
mesothelioma will be Cal-retnin positive
What is egg-shell calcification on x-ray a classic symptom of?
silicosis (affects the upper lobe primarily), can increase susceptibility to TB
What are lines of Zahn?
created by the layering effect of thrombus forming in a vessel with blood flow (an alternating pattern of platelets, fibrin and RBC)
is important in identifying ante-morem thrombosis v. post mortem clot
Discuss possible causes of pulmonary HTN.
COPD/ILD causing hypoxia and loss of capillaries
congenital (shunts) or acquired heart disease (MS)
recurrent tromboemboli (obstruction causes increase in PVR)
connective tissue disease (systemic sclerosis)
obstructive sleep apnea (with obesity_
What gene is connected to familial pulmonary arterial hypertension? What is its inheritance pattern?
BMPR 2: bone morphogenic protein receptor type 2, lack of signaling by this receptor causes an increase in proliferation and a decrease in apoptosis of endothelial cells ("gate keeper" of # endothelial cells)
AD with 10-20% entrance, follows two-hit hypothesis
What morphological changes occur in response to pulmonary hypertension?
increase atherosclerotic plaques, and medial hypertrophy (smooth muscle proliferation causing onion like pattern)
plexiform lesions: proliferation of SM form multiple channels within the capillary
Pulmonary edema can be divided into types based on their etiology, what are those two types?
Hemodyanmic (increased hydrostatic pressure-CHF; decreased oncotic pressure- protein loss)
microvascular injury (increased vascular permeability due to injury, infection, sepsis, trauma, shock and drugs)
What is pulmonary alveolar proteinosis? What causes it?
granular precipitate of surfactant that can fill alveoli; it is most often caused by a anti GM-CSF antibody (autoimmune) and secondarily by hemopoietic disease or malignancy
How are ALI, ARDS and DAD related?
acute lung injury: hypoxemia and infiltrates without heart failure
acute respiratory distress syndrome: severe hypoxema and infiltrates without heart failure
diffuse alveolar damage: histologic manifestations of ALI and ARDS characterized by hyaline membranes that impair gas exchange and consist of fibrin rich edema and cytoplasmic and lipid remnants of necrotic cells
What are the reproducible phases of DAD?
exudative, transition, proliferative, fibrotic
Goodpasture syndrome is an autoimmunity disease that occurs against type ____ collagen in the basement membrane which is damaged in a type ___ reaction.
antibody against type IV collagen in the basement membrane, damage due to type II reaction
note death commonly mediated by uremia in renal failure and tx. includes plasmapheresis to remove antibody (linear pattern of antibody deposition)