Flashcards in Pathology of the Uterus Deck (34):
What should the endometrial thickness be in a premenopausal women?
16mm or less
What should the endometrial thickness be in a post menopausal woman?
4mm or less
What are the two options for getting a uterine biopsy?
Endometrial pipelle biopsy
Dilatation and Curretage
What 5 things are important to include on an endometrial biopsy sample?
Date of LMP and length of cycle
Pattern of bleeding
What is the most common cause of dysfunctional uterine bleeding?
When are anovulatory cycles most common?
Either end of reproductive life
What is the most common cause of endometritis?
A 37 year old women presents with lower abdominal pain, fever and abnormal bleeding. On histology you see an abnormal pattern on inflammatory cells in the endometrium.
Acute endometritis (most commonly due to infection)
When is the most common time for endometrial polyps to occur?
Around and after menopause
How many days does the corpus luteum continue to secrete progesterone for in the absence of pregnancy?
What type of tumour is a fibroid?
Benign smooth muscle tumour
What hormone are fibroids dependent on?
A condition where endometrial glands and stroma extend into the myometrium causing painful periods.
When is red degeneration of a fibroid most likely to occur?
A patient who is known to have fibroids presents with abdominal pain at 9 weeks pregnant. What might have happened?
Red degeneration of the fibroid
What is the name given to fibroids that are located within the wall of the uterus? (they are the most common type)
What is the name given to fibroids that are located underneath the peritoneal surface of the uterus (they can become very large or grow in a papillary manner to become pedunculated)
What is the term used to describe a pedunculated fibroid that detached from the uterus?
What is the name given to fibroids that are located just under the lining of the uterine cacity and can distort the uterine cavity; meaning even small lesions may lead to infertility?
What is the name given to fibroids that are located in the wall of the cervix?
What type of symptoms do you usually get with subserosal fibroids and why?
Pressure symptoms and pelvic pain. This is because these tumours can continue to grow outward and increase in size to put pressure on the surrounding organs
Which type of fibroid most commonly presents with pressure symptoms?
What type of hydatiform mole is caused by a single sperm combining with an egg that has lost its DNA?
What type of hydatiform mole is caused by two sperms?
Which type of hydatiform moles have a higher risk of developing into a choriocarcinoma?
What type of tissue is choriocarcinoma a tumour of?
What is the pathological finding of hydatiform moles?
Swollen chorionic villi
What is endometritis?
Inflammation of the endometrium that is not part of the usual endometrial cycle
What disease is characterised by plasma cells in the endometrium?
What might cause granulomas to be found in the endometrium?
Chronic endometritis caused by TB, sarcoidosis or fungal infection
Where are the most common sites of endometriosis?
Pouch of Douglas
Posterior Pelvic Peritoneum
In which disease do you see chocolate cysts on the ovary?
What causes the sub fertility associated with endometriosis?
The inflammation associated with endometriosis leads to the formation of adhesions which may lead to secondary abnormalities of the fallopian tubes.