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Flashcards in Pathology of the Uterus Deck (34):
1

What should the endometrial thickness be in a premenopausal women?

16mm or less

2

What should the endometrial thickness be in a post menopausal woman?

4mm or less

3

What are the two options for getting a uterine biopsy?

Endometrial pipelle biopsy
Dilatation and Curretage

4

What 5 things are important to include on an endometrial biopsy sample?

Age
Date of LMP and length of cycle
Pattern of bleeding
Hormones
Recent pregnancy

5

What is the most common cause of dysfunctional uterine bleeding?

Anovulatory cycles

6

When are anovulatory cycles most common?

Either end of reproductive life

7

What is the most common cause of endometritis?

Infection

8

A 37 year old women presents with lower abdominal pain, fever and abnormal bleeding. On histology you see an abnormal pattern on inflammatory cells in the endometrium.

Acute endometritis (most commonly due to infection)

9

When is the most common time for endometrial polyps to occur?

Around and after menopause

10

How many days does the corpus luteum continue to secrete progesterone for in the absence of pregnancy?

14 days

11

What type of tumour is a fibroid?

Benign smooth muscle tumour

12

What hormone are fibroids dependent on?

Oestrogen

13

A condition where endometrial glands and stroma extend into the myometrium causing painful periods.

Adenomyosis

14

When is red degeneration of a fibroid most likely to occur?

During pregnancy

15

A patient who is known to have fibroids presents with abdominal pain at 9 weeks pregnant. What might have happened?

Red degeneration of the fibroid

16

What is the name given to fibroids that are located within the wall of the uterus? (they are the most common type)

Intramural

17

What is the name given to fibroids that are located underneath the peritoneal surface of the uterus (they can become very large or grow in a papillary manner to become pedunculated)

Subserosal

18

What is the term used to describe a pedunculated fibroid that detached from the uterus?

Parasitic leiomyoma

19

What is the name given to fibroids that are located just under the lining of the uterine cacity and can distort the uterine cavity; meaning even small lesions may lead to infertility?

Submucosal

20

What is the name given to fibroids that are located in the wall of the cervix?

Cervical fibroids

21

What type of symptoms do you usually get with subserosal fibroids and why?

Pressure symptoms and pelvic pain. This is because these tumours can continue to grow outward and increase in size to put pressure on the surrounding organs

22

Which type of fibroid most commonly presents with pressure symptoms?

Subserosal

23

What type of hydatiform mole is caused by a single sperm combining with an egg that has lost its DNA?

Complete

24

What type of hydatiform mole is caused by two sperms?

Partial mole

25

Which type of hydatiform moles have a higher risk of developing into a choriocarcinoma?

Complete

26

What type of tissue is choriocarcinoma a tumour of?

Trophoblast

27

What is the pathological finding of hydatiform moles?

Swollen chorionic villi

28

What is endometritis?

Inflammation of the endometrium that is not part of the usual endometrial cycle

29

What disease is characterised by plasma cells in the endometrium?

Chronic endometritis

30

What might cause granulomas to be found in the endometrium?

Chronic endometritis caused by TB, sarcoidosis or fungal infection

31

Where are the most common sites of endometriosis?

Ovaries
Pouch of Douglas
Posterior Pelvic Peritoneum

32

In which disease do you see chocolate cysts on the ovary?

Endometriosis

33

What causes the sub fertility associated with endometriosis?

The inflammation associated with endometriosis leads to the formation of adhesions which may lead to secondary abnormalities of the fallopian tubes.

34

Are the chorionic villi formed from the fetus or the mother?

Fetus