Physiology of Pregnancy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Physiology of Pregnancy Deck (36):
1

Describe how the CO changes in pregnancy?

Increases from 6 weeks on

2

In the first trimester what structures is responsible for producing progesterone?

Corpus luteum

3

When does the corpus luteum degenerate?

1st half of the second trimester

4

When does the placenta take over the production of pregnancy?

1st half of the second trimester

5

What happens to oestrogen levels during pregnancy?

Rise throughout the whole 9 months

6

What hormone causes growth of the ductile system of the breast?

Oestrogen

7

Which cells penetrate the endometrium during implantation?

Trophoblast

8

By what day does the blastocyst become buried in the uterine lining?

Day 12

9

Is the partial pressure of Carbon dioxide elevated or lowered in fetal blood?

Elevated

10

Is the fetal haemoglobin curve shifted to the right or left? What does this mean?

Left. It can bind oxygen at a much lower partial pressure

11

List three ways in which the oxygen supply to the fetus is facilitated?

Fetal Hb - higher affinity for Oxygen
Higher Hb concentration in fetal blood
Bohr effect (Fetal Hb can carry more oxygen in low pC02 than in high pC02

12

How does water diffuse across the placenta?

Osmosis

13

How does glucose get into the fetus?

Simplified transport

14

What is the initial action of HCG?

Prevents breakdown of the corpus lutem

15

What does HCS do and when is it produced?

From week 5
Growth hormone like effects
Decreases insulin sensitivity in the mother

16

What hormone is responsible for the development of decidual cells?

Progesterone

17

What hormone is responsible for relaxation of the ligaments?

Oestrogen

18

What hormone is responsible for enlargement of the uterus?

Oestrogen

19

What happens to the CO in pregnancy?

Increases week 6 to week 24
Decreases in last 8 weeks due to vena cava compression
Increases 30% during labour

20

What happens to HR in pregnancy?

Increases

21

What happens to blood pressure in the second trimester?

Drops due to expansion of the uteroplacental circulation and decreased peripheral resistance

22

Describe what happens to the plasma volume in pregnancy?

Increases

23

What happens to erythropoiesis during pregnancy?

Increases

24

What happens to haemaglobin levels during pregnancy?

Decrease due to dilution

25

Give two reasons why lung function changes during pregnancy?

Progesterone
Effect of enlarging terus

26

What does progesterone do during pregnancy that effects the respiratory system?

Increases the CO2 sensitivity in the respiratory centres (causes a lowering of CO2 levels)

27

How does the respiratory system change in pregnancy?

RR increases
Tidal and minute volume increases
PC02 decreases
Vital capacity and P02 stay the same.

28

What is tidal volume?

The volume of air displaced in one breath

29

What is minute volume?

The volume of air inhaled or exhaled per minute

30

What is vital capacity?

The maximum amount of air a person can expel from the lungs after a maximum inhalation. It is equal to the sum of inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, and expiratory reserve volume

31

What happens to GFR in pregnancy?

Increases

32

What happens to renal plasma flow in pregnancy?

Increases

33

Which hormone causes development of the lobular alveolar system?

Progesterone

34

Which hormone stimulates milk production?

Prolactin

35

Which hormone is responsible for contraction of smooth muscle causing the milk let down reflex?

Oxytocin

36

Which hormone causes increased oxytocin receptors on the uterus?

Oestrogen