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Flashcards in pathophys quiz 2 GI Deck (47)
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1

Ingestion

it is important to know that we reabsorb H2O bc we secrete so much H2O into our digestive system

2

where do you absorb most of the H2O

small intestine (absorption is constant)

3

where else is water absorbed

large intestine, but it varies (this is why you become constipated)

4

Two ways food is digested

mechanically and chemically

5

where do chemical and mechanical digestion begin?

the mouth

6

Mechanical digestion

mastication and peristalsis

7

Chemical digestion

salivary amylase that breaks down carbs
-parasympathetic (rest and digestion) system releases salivary amylase

8

Compartmentalization

One region can excel at digesting one type of nutrient, another can excel at digesting something else

9

where do carbohydrates begin digestion?

the mouth

10

where do proteins get digested?

stomach

11

where do lipids get digested

small intestine

12

Absorption for most nutrients occurs where?

small intestine

13

where is water absorbed

SI and LI

14

where are drugs absorbed?

Mouth, stomach, SI, LI (depends on the drug)

15

Digestion disassembly process

Ingestion-digestion-absorption-secretion-elimination

16

elimination

involves parasympathetic and local reflexes

17

what are the 2 parts of the digestive system that involve any voluntary control?

ingestion (no eating)
elimination (holding yo shit)

18

GI regulation control mechanisms are mostly (voluntary or involuntary)

involuntary

19

GI regulation is governed by what?

Volume, position, composition the luminal contents (not by the nutritional state of the body)

20

what is the purpose of the mucosa?

enhance surface area in mucosal epithelium

21

High surface area is needed in digestion for...

more surface area for secretion, chemical reactions of digestion (many happen on surfaces of lumen cells), and absorption

22

what two types of cells does the epithelium have and what do they do?

Exocrine- make digestive chemicals or enzymes
Endocrine- communicate with other parts of the GI tract

23

What does the submucosa contain?

-Blood flow (fantastic) - feature portal system - direct oath for nutrients from the GI tract to the liver
-Nerve Plexus

24

Nerve plexus

-innervated by the autonomic (parasympathetic, via vagus nerve) nervous system, which can have a significant effect on the actions of your GI tract

25

Muscularis

-Circular muscle inside (concentric, like the sections of an earthworm you can see), and long muscle outside. it is how the digestive tract does the two types of movement it does- concentric contractions and peristalsis
-It also houses local and autonomic nerve but theres no voluntary control

26

Serosa (adventitia)

outer covering that comes between the GI tract and the peritoneal cavity

27

GI tract wall layers

Mucosa-Submucosa-Muscularis-Serosa

28

Digestion route

Mouth- pharynx-esophagus-peristalsis-stomach

29

Functions of Mouth and pharynx

-Mechanical digestion of all food
-Chemical digestion of carbs (salivary amylase)
-Voluntary + reflexive control of swallowing - a complex process
-Soft palate keeps food from going up into the nose
-Epiglottis keeps food from going down the trachea

30

Esophagus layers

-Mucosa- stratified squamous, so its durable. Not a ton of surface area bc theres no absorption here
-Submucosa- Nerves, vessels, and connective tissue
-Muscularis- longitudinal and circular smooth muscle; responsible for peristalsis
-Adventitia (serosa)- holds esophagus to the structures around it
(we use these layers to stage cancer)

31

Sphincter

muscular 'doorway' that opens to allow passage, closes to prevent it

32

what are the 2 types of sphincters and where are they located?

upper and lower esophageal sphincter (UES and LES)
Upper= at pharynx
Lower= near diaphragm

33

GERD

LES is leaky

34

Hiatal hernia

stomach herniated up in the thoracic region

35

Barrett's

-can lead to cancer
-damage of stratified squamous by acid by LES

36

Peristalsis

-happens throughout the digestive tract
-the higher in the tract the more rapidly peristalsis happens
-involuntary constriction and relaxation of the muscles of the intestine or another canal, creating wavelike movements that push the contents of the canal forward.

37

What is the stomachs pH?

2

38

How does the stomach mechanically digest food?

chyme

39

The stomach is a food reservoir, how big can it stretch:?

40-1000 ml

40

what is the only thing the stomach can chemically digest?

proteins

41

stomach facts:

-nutrient pacer (releases a bit at a time to the duodenum)
-minimal absorber
-look up the F,B,A,P of the stomach

42

Stomach wall

Mucosa
submucosa
muscularis
serosa

43

stomach mucosa

columnar epithelium (easily damaged): this is often what you see in a tissue with many glands. replaces itself every 3 days bc of wear and tear of acid. full of glands that produce HCl and pepsinogen (exocrine), gastrin (endocrine)
-gastric gland

44

gastric gland

-mucous cells = mucous
-parietal cells=HCl
-Chief cells= Pepsinogen
-Enteroendocrine cells (G cells) = gastrin (it is endocrine to talk to pancreas and small intestine)

45

stomach submucosa

rich blood supply + nerve plexusendocrine

46

stomach muscular is

even an extra layer of muscle so churning can be vigorous, distention can be undone, and peristalsis can happen.
-nerve plexus is also there

47

stomach serosa

entry point for vessels and nerves