Pathophys quiz 2 CV Flashcards Preview

Pathophys quiz 2 > Pathophys quiz 2 CV > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pathophys quiz 2 CV Deck (133)
Loading flashcards...
1

Pressure

Force exerted; measured in mmHg

2

Flow

Volume moved; measured in mL/min (volume moved in the time)

3

Resistance

how difficult it is for the blood to flow between 2 points at any given pressure difference; the measure of the friction that impedes flow

4

3 things that contribute to resistance?

-Blood viscosity
-Total blood vessel length (surface area increases resistance)
-Blood vessel diameter (This is the biggest contributor to min-to-min control of resistance in the vascular system)

5

what has the biggest effect on resistance?

Radius

6

Flow =

change in pressure/ resistance

7

In a system with constant pressure if you increase resistance you _____ flow and if you decrease resistance you _______ flow

decrease, increase

8

In a system with constant pressure if you increase pressure it _____ flow

increases

9

In a system with constant pressure if you decrease pressure you ____ flow

decrease

10

In a system with constant pressure F and R are _______ related

inversely

11

Positive chronotropic factors ______ HR

increase

12

negative chronotropic factors ______ HR

decrease

13

3 systems that regulate the heart

Endocrine system, nervous system, kidney

14

How does the endocrine system regulate the heart?

Atrial Natriuretic peptide (hearts own endocrine system

15

Atrial Natriuretic peptide

-secreted by specialized cells in the atria
-Regulates the concentration of Na+ in extracellular fluid

16

How does the Nervous system regulate the heart?

(body talks to the heart through this system)
Sympathetic nervous system (SNS)
Parasympathetic nervous system (PNS)

17

How does SNS regulate the heart?

-Increases HR / Increases Stroke volume
-Innervates entire heart muscle and node cells
-Binds the neuroendocrine hormone epinephrine from the adrenal gland
-Beta-adrenergic receptors on the SA node and on Pumping cells

18

SNS releases ______ through thoracic spinal nerves which kicks in first!

Norepinephrine (NE)

19

_______ hormone from the adrenal medulla will kick in second

Epinephrine

20

How does the PNS regulate the heart?

-Slow HR
-innervates just the SA/AV nodes
-Muscarinic Cholinergic receptors on the SA node only
-releases Acetylcholine (hormone) through vagus nerve

21

How do the Kidneys regulate the heart?

Control blood volume by retaining or relating fluid (affects stroke volume (SV)

22

arteries and veins both contain what 3 structures, but vary in the amounts of each?

smooth muscle
endothelial cells
fibroblasts

23

Structures involved in the vascular system?

-Arteries
-Elastiuc arteries (conduit), muscular arteries, arterioles
-Capillaries
-veins
-venules

24

Arteries need to be more elastic, while veins are more _____

compliant

25

Arteries are responsible for transmitting _____ to the vessels beyond them.

pressure
they are pressure reservoirs bc of their elastic recoil

26

Veins: the higher the compliance, the more they can _____ without corresponding increase in pressure

stretch out

27

Compliance =

change in volume / change in pressure

28

Veins have _____ walls and _____ compliance

thin, high

29

Pulmonary pressure is always ____ than arterial pressure

lower

30

Pressure ______ the farther it travels down the systemic circuit

decreases