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Flashcards in Pathophys quiz 2 Pulmonary Deck (83)
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1

Ventilation

exchange of air between the atmosphere and alveoli (difference in pressure if created by respiratory muscles)

2

Flow=

Change in pressure / resistance

3

Flow is greatest if the difference in gas pressure is _____ and resistance is ______

high, low

4

Boyles law

At constant temperature, the pressure of a gas varies inversely with its volume
P1V1=P2V2

5

If pressure in the lungs goes down, volume goes______ and if pressure in the lungs goes up, volume goes ______

up , down

6

Inspiration

Palv < Patm

7

Expiration

Palv > Patm

8

for every ___ units of O2 you intake, you expel ____ units of CO2

10, 8

9

Palv when exhaling

positive (creates pressure to force air out)

10

Palv when inhaling is

negative

11

Palv at the end of both inhaling and exhaling is

0, no air movement

12

Alveolar ventilation

total volume of fresh air entering the alveoli per minute

13

Tidal Volume

Total amount of air that we inhale and exhale

14

Inspiratory reserve volume

the extra air we can breath in past normal breathing

15

expiratory reserve volume

the extra air we can breath out past normal breathing

16

residual volume

the air we can not breath out (why the Heimlich maneuver works)

17

at what % of saturated hemoglobin do you have to breath?

65%

18

How do low temps affect how Hb holds onto O2?

-Metabolism slows so O2 demand is less
-Hb holds onto O2 tighter

19

How do high temps affect how Hb holds onto O2? (fever)

Hb drops off O2 faster

20

How do high pH affect how Hb holds onto O2?

Hb holds onto O2 tighter

21

How does low pH affect how Hb holds onto O2?

Hb lets go of O2 easier

22

How does high 2, 3 DPG (produced by glycolysis) affect how Hb holds onto O2?

Hb lets go of O2 easier

23

How do low 2, 3 DPG (produced by glycolysis) affect how Hb holds onto O2?

Holds onto O2 tighter

24

Hypoxemia

lack of oxygen in the blood

25

Hypoxemic hypoxia

reduced arterial O2 (can be caused by lack of oxygenated air, pulmonary problems, lack of ventilation-perfusion coupling)

26

Hypoxia

inadequate oxygen delivery to tissues

27

4 causes of hypoxia

-Anemic
-ischemic
-histotoxic
-hypoxemic

28

Anemic Hypoxia

poor O2 delivery because of too few RBC's or abnormal hemoglobin

29

Ischemic Hypoxia

Blood circulation is impaired

30

Histotoxia hypoxia

the body's mitochondria are unable to use O2 (cyanide causes this)

31

Hypoxemic hypoxia

reduced arterial O2 (can be caused by lack of oxygenated air, pulmonary problems, lack of ventilation-perfusion coupling)

32

you can have _____ without ______ but if you have ______ you WILL have______

hypoxia without hypoxemia
hypoxemia you will have hypoxia

33

in what zone does gas exchange happen?

respiratory zone

34

what makes up the respiratory zone?

alveoli

35

what makes up the conducting zone?

everything besides alveoli

36

Conducting zone:

low-resistance airflow, defense against foreign material / infection, warm the air

37

what 2 things make up the trachea?

cilia and goblet cell

38

Goblet cell produce what?

mucous

39

what does smoking kill?

cilia (when they grow back ex smokers develop a cough

40

alveolar cells are responsible for what?

gas exchange

41

Type I alveolar cells are also called what?

pneumocytes

42

what do type II alveolar cells produce?

surfactant

43

why is the bronchus covered in smooth muscle?

to direct air flow

44

3 types of relexes

Foreign body reaction
Voluntary control of breathing
J receptors

45

Foreign body reaction

coughing and sneezing

46

Voluntary control of breathing

holding your breath or rapid breathing

47

J receptors

-in lung tissue, innervated by the vague nerve
-stimulated by fluid buildup in lungs interstitial space (embolism, pulmonary edema, exercising extremely hard)
-results in: dyspnea, rapid breathing, dry cough

48

Pleural sacs

-there are 2 of them, so if one is damaged the other one can still function
-Thoraic wall - parietal pleura - intrapleural fluid - visceral pleura - lung

49

intrapleural fluid

lubrication fluid between pleura layers

50

Intrapleural space has relative _____ pressure to help keep lungs from collapsing in

negative
-chest wall is always pulling out, lungs are elastic and always pulling in = these forces create a negative pressure

51

Pleurisy

painful irritation / friction of the inter pleural space

52

what is pleurisy caused by:

inflammation (infection, chemical exposure) and build up of an irritant (bleeding infection)

53

Tx of pleurisy

drain fluid or decrease the inflammation, then treat source

54

Ventilation

getting oxygen into the alveoli: breathing

55

Ventilation problems

respiratory muscle paralysis; high altitude; foreign body obstruction; laryngospasm; alveolar collapse (atelectasis); asthma; airway damage (smoking)

56

Exchange

getting O2 into the blood and CO2 out of the blood

57

Exchange problems:

Pulmonary edema; pulmonary fibrosis; carbon monoxide poisoning; anemia; pulmonary embolus (oxygen comes in but theres no blood arriving to pick it up); asthma
-everything rolls downhill

58

Is O2/CO2 ratio even or not?

not even, CO2 is lower

59

PO2 pressure in the air

160 mmHg

60

PCO2 pressure in the air

0.3 mmHg

61

PO2 pressure in alveoli

105 mmHg

62

PCO2 pressure in alveoli

40 mmHg

63

PO2 in pulmonary veins, left heart, systemic veins

100 mmHg

64

PCO2 in pulmonary veins, left heart, systemic veins

40 mmHg

65

PO2 in systemic veins, right heart, pulmonary arteries

40 mmHg

66

PCO2 in systemic veins, right heart, pulmonary arteries

46 mmHg

67

Transport

get oxygen to the tissue

68

transport problem:

left heart failure and many other pump failures (taxis are loaded but not moved out; arterial thrombosis; arterial bleeding; sickle cell disease

69

Exchange

get O2 from blood into tissue cells and CO2 from tissue cells into blood

70

exchange problems

peripheral edema; abnormal oxygen dissociation (acidosis or alkalosis)

71

Utilization

oxygen consumption in the tissues

72

problems with utilization

venous bleeding; sickle cell disease; shock; venous thrombosis

73

Transport of CO2

CO2 must dissolve in liquid to diffuse through plasma membranes, it also diffuses across 2 cell membranes to get to the plasma
-some CO2 travels within the plasma
-Some CO2 travels enters the RBC and travels bound to hemoglobin
-Some CO2 travels within RBC but free from hemoglobin

74

Bicarbonate equilibrium

CO2+H2O <=> H2CO3 <=> H+ + HCO3-

75

how much CO2 travels via bicarbonate equilibrium

30%

76

why is bicarbonate so important

its a buffer
enzymes work best at pH 7.44

77

CO2 is controlled by what

the lungs

78

bicarbonate is controlled by what

kidneys

79

what 2 things buffer the blood stream

-deoxyhemoglobin
-bicarbonate buffer system

80

what controls respiration

PONS and the medulla

81

what are the 2 chemo-receptors

peripheral and central

82

peripheral chemo-receptors

-sensitive to levels of O2, H+ and high CO2
-you respond to high levels of CO2 first

83

central chemo-receptors

-only sensitive to pH
-these are the receptors that are shut down by alcohol and drugs by suppressing the medullas respiratory pacemaker