When is a deformity significant?
if it is likely to persist and cause physical or mental health problems later in life
by what process do bones grow?
what is another name for the growth plate of a bone?
bones grow in a _______ direction from teh growth plate
name some factors affecting the growth plate
Vitamins (D & A)
desrcibe varum knee alignment
'bow legged' the knees face out the way
describe valgum knee alignment
'knock kneed' knees facing in the way
genu varum is normal up until what age?
give examples of pathological genu varum
what is blounts disease?
growth arrest of the medial tibial physis
what casues blounts disease?
unkown aetilogy (possibly due to weight overload)
give some examples of pathological genu valgum
when does genu valgum peak?
what is the management of genu valgum?
chart and monitor
If asymmetric or painful then refer
under what circumstance would surgery be considered for gune valgum?
if at age 11 the intermalleolar distance was >8cm
child walks with toes ponting inwards (pigeon toed)
what could intoeing be related to?
femoral neck anteversion
internal tibial torsion
what is the mean degree of rotation of the femoral neck at birth?
what should the mean degree of rotaion of the feumr be at maturity?
femroal anteversion can predispose what problem?
internal tibial torsion is mostly seen in what age group? the vast majority resolve by what age?
usually seen in toddlers (1-3yrs) and resolves by 6 yrs
is bracing and orthotics necessary for internal tibial torsion?
no- they are ineffectieve andnot required
what can be used to correct metatarsal adductus if it does resolve?
casting may help between 6 and 12 months old
how is intoeing managed?
define the cause
review and discharge
how common is flat feet in adults?
1 in 5
everyone is born wth flat feet but what develops to correct this?
medial arch- this develops as tibialis posterior strengthens
in flat feet what can be used to determine if it is fixed or flexible?
in rigid flat foot there may be an underlying bony connection, what is this called?
curly toes affects who and which toes?
common in younger children and mostly 3rd or 4th toes
splinting and tapign are effective in curly toes true/false?
false- they are ineffective