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Flashcards in Histology Deck (56)
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1

skeletal muscle cells are striated/nonstriated, branched/unbranched

striated and unbranched

2

skeletal muscle cells are multinucleated- what does this form

syncytium

3

define syncytium

cell containing multiple nuclei

4

where in a skeletal muscle cell are the nuclei found?

periphery of the fibre, just under the cell membrane

5

what is the cell membrane in a muscle cell called?

sarcolemma

6

muscle fibres are grouped into bundles- what are these bundles called?

fascicles

7

the connective tissue surrounding the entire muscle is called what?

the epimysium

8

the connective tissue surrounding a single fascicle is called what?

the perimysium

9

the connective tissue surrounding a single muscle fibre is called what?

endomysium

10

each muscle fibre contains many myofibrils which are made up of what?

sarcomeres placed end-to-end

11

what other structures are contained within muscle?

blood vessels connective tissue nerves lymphatics

12

by definition where do sarcomeres begin/end?

Z lines

13

when does the axon of a motor neurone branch?

as it nears its termination

14

what is the name given to the special synapse at the end of each branch of a motor neurons axon?

neuromuscular junction

15

the fibres in a motor unit are bunched/scattered?

scattered

16

list some features of cartilage

semi-rigid and deformable permeable avascular

17

what are the cells found in cartilage called?

chondrocytes

18

what is the name given to immature chondrocytes?

chondroblasts

19

where exactly are chondrocytes found?

space within the extracellular matrix termed a lacuna

20

what is the function of chondrocytes?

secrete and maintin the extracellular matrix around them 

21

what are the three types of cartilage?

hyaline 

elastic 

fibrocartilage 

22

what is the most common type of cartilage?

hyaline 

23

describe the appearance of hyaline cartilage 

blue-white in colour

translucent 

24

describe the appearance of elastic cartilage

light yellow in colour

quite flexible (addition of elastic fibres)

25

describe fibrocatilage

appears white

hybrid between tendon and hyaline cartilage 

bands of densely packed type I collagen with rows of chondrocytes

 

 

26

what are the components of the ECM in hyaline cartllage?

75% water

25% organic material- type II collagen and proteoglycan  

27

what is the difference between type I and type II collagen 

type I

- thicker (75nm)

- aggregates into linear bundles

 

type II

- finer (15-45nm)

- forsm 3D meshwork  

28

list some of the sites hyaline cartilage can be found in?

articular surfaces

tracheal rings 

costal cartilage

epiphyseal growth plates

precursor in fetus to many bones 

29

list the functions of bone

support

levers for movement 

protection 

calcium store

haemopoesis

 

30

what is the compostiion of bone?

65% bioapatite(calcium phosphate)

23% collagen 

10% water

2% non collagen protiens