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Flashcards in Pediatric Derm Deck (68):
1

 

 

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Mongolian Spot

 

2

What are Mongolian spots

Collection of melanocytes in the dermal layer

 

Also known as congenital dermo-melanocytosis

3

What are the signs and symptoms of Mongolian spots

Flat blue or gray lesions with well-defined margins

Commonly found in the presacral region

More common dark skinned races

Often confused with bruises

Will fade with time

4

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Erythema toxicum

5

What are the signs and symptoms of erythema toxicum

Small papules/pustules on an erythematous base

Usually appear after first day of life

 

Lesions will contain mostly eosinophils

6

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Seborrheic dermatitis

"Cradle Cap"

 

7

What are the signs and symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis

Erythematous, try, crusting lesions on the face, scalp, perineum, postauricular and intertrigenous Areas

 

less pruritic than eczema

8

What are intertrigenous ares

Area where two surfaces of skin touch or rub together

9

What is the treatment first of seborrheic dermatitis

Baby oil

Dandruff shampoo (Hypersensitivity to yeast)

Hydrocortisone for severe cases

10

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Milia

11

What is Milia

Small inclusions cyst

Epstein's pearls in the mouth are common

Self-limited, benign

12

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Cutis Marmorata

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What is cutis marmorata

Lacy pattern on skin

Represents is a vasomotor response to cold stress

Persistent form is seen with trisomy 21 and trisomy 18

Usually decreases with warmth to the child

14

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Neonatal Acne

15

What is neonatal acne

Comedomes caused by an excess in circulating androgenic hormones

No treatment usually required

16

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Salmon Patch

17

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Stork Bite

18

What is a salmon patch

Flat vascular lesion commonly seen over the eyelids, glabella,  the nucal areas, symmetric

Usually disappears time

Distinguish from Portwine stains (permanent, unilateral, more intensely colored)

19

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Capillary Hemangioma

20

What is a capillary hemangioma

Macular strawberry colored lesions

Grow quickly in the first your life

99% regressed completely by age 9 with no treatment

 

21

When is treatment indicated for capillary hemangioma

Becomes Caverness (Kasabach merrit)

Is in the airway (suggested by cutaneous lessions in a beard distribution)

Threatens vision

22

What is kasabach merrit syndrome

Hemangioma with thrombocytopenia

 

Vascular tumor leads to decrease in platelets

May become cavernous

23

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Portwine stain

24

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Cafe Au Lait spots

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What are the signs and symptoms of cafe au lait spots

Sharply demarcated tan or light brown flat lesions

Occur anywhere

Variable and size

Associate with neurofibromatosis

26

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Acne Vulgaris

27

What is that Acne Vulgaris

Skin disorder caused by:

1. Abnormal characterization of the follicular epithelium

2. Increase sebum

3. Inflammation from bacteria growth (Propionibacterium acnes)

All these changes are stimulated by pubertal hormonal changes

28

What is the treatment for acne vulgaris

Keep skin cleaned

No special diet

Abnormal keratin: benzyl peroxide's (topical)

Bacterial Overgrowth:  topical (clindamycin) or Systemic antibiotics (tetracyclines)

Increased Sebum: topical or systemic retinoids

29

What side effects are associated with systemic retinoid therapy

Photosensitivity 

birth defects

30

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Atopic Dermatitis

31

What is atopic dermatitis

Chronic relapsing remitting inflammatory skin reaction with a strong genetic predelection

32

What are the signs and symptoms of atopic dermatitis

Pruritic your erythematous papulovesicular reaction that progresses to scaling, hypertrophy and lichenification

Less than two years: extensors, face, scalp, sparing of diaper

Older: flexor, neck, wrist, ankles

 

33

What is the treatment for atopic dermatitis

Emoillents, decreased irritants

Topical corticosteroids

Topical immunosuppressants (tacrolimus, pimectrolimus)

34

What complications are associate with atopic dermatitis

Bacterial or herpetic superinfection

Staph, strep, HSV

35

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Psoriasis

36

What is psoriasis

Chronic inflammatory disease with strong genetic predisposition that affects 1 to 3% of the population

37

What are the signs and symptoms of psoriasis

Plaques and papules with silver scale mostly on extensor surfaces

Nail Findings: pitting, oncholysis, and yellow discoloration

38

What is the treatment for psoriasis

Emollients, topical steroids, tar and phototherapy

39

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Tinea Corporis

40

What pathogens are associated with tinea corporis

Trichophyton tonsurans

Microsporum canis

41

What are the signs and symptoms of tinea corporis

Annular lesion with raised order, scaling and central clearing

42

What is included in the differential for tinea corporis

Erythema migrants (lime disease)

nummular eczema

Psoriasis

Erthema Multiforme

43

What is the treatment for tinea corporis

Topical antifungal (such as clotrimazole)

44

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Tinea Capatis

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Kerion

46

What pathogens are associated with tinea capitis

Trichophytum tonsurans, 

Microsporum Canis

47

What are the signs and symptoms of tinea capitis

Hair loss, scalp pruritus, (black dot sign), occipital adenopathy

48

What is the treatment for tinea capitis

Griseofulvin for 4 to 6 weeks

49

What is a kerion

Allergic reaction to the fungus causing a buggy granulomatous mass. They often resolve on their own;  some require steroids

50

What causes the "black dot sign"

broken hairs at the base that looks like black dots

51

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Staphylococcal Scalded skin syndrome

52

What are the signs and symptoms of staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome

Ill peering infant with inflamed maculopapular rash with purulent discharge

53

What is the treatment for staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome

Fluid resuscitation, intravenous antibiotics

54

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Impetigo

55

What is impetigo

Superficial skin infections staph aureus or group A beta-hemolytic strep

56

Where the signs and symptoms of impetigo

Nonbullous: vesicles, papules, plus shows that rupturing leave a honey colored crust over a shallow ulcerated base

 

Bullous: red macules the progress to bullous reactions on an erythematous base

57

What is the treatment of impetigo

Bactroban: Mupirocin tropical

Oral antibiotics if extensive

58

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Pityriasis Rosea

59

What are the signs and symptoms of pityriasis rosea

Herald patch: annular, raised boarder with fine adherent scales

 

5 to 10 days later, widespread symmetric eruption: oval, round,  less than 1 cm, may have scale, "Christmas tree pattern" - follow skin folds; pruritic

 

May persist for 4 to 6 weeks

 

60

What is the treatment for pityriasis rosea

Emoilents

Antihistamines

Trial of steroids, but this is yet to be proven

61

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Cellulitis

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What are the signs and symptoms of cellulitis

Erythema, warm, paint

It's an infection of the deeper layers of the skin caused by group A beta-hemolytic strep or staph aureus

63

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Erythema multiforme

64

What are the signs and symptoms of erythema multiforme

Hypersensitivity reaction associated with viral infections, mycoplasma infection, drug ingestion, immunizations and food reactions

Signs and symptoms: symmetric distribution of lesions evolving through multiple morphological stages including target lesions

65

What is the treatment of erythema multiforme

Symptomatic

66

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Steven Johnson syndrome

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What is Stevens-Johnson syndrome

Severe form of erythema multiforme

Signs and symptoms: inflammatory Bullae on two or more mucous membranes

68

What is the treatment for Stevens-Johnson syndrome

Supportive care, especially fluid management

Associated with a 10% mortality