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Flashcards in Pediatrics 1 Deck (99):
1

Piaget's Four Stages of Cognitive Development

Sensorimotor.

Preoperational Thought.

Concrete Operational Thought.

Formal Operational Thought.

2

Piaget's Sensorimotor

0-2 Years.

Uses senses to understand the world. Begins to interact with environment. Develops thinking and goal-directed behavior.

3

Piaget's Preoperational Thought

2-6 Years.

Develops egocentric thinking. Uses trial and error. Conceptualizes present time only. Logic, intuitive thinking. Imagination.

4

Piaget's Concrete Operational Thought

7-11 Years.

Understands logical operations. Has realistic views. Improved memory. Multitasking. Cause-and-effect. Conversational.

5

Piaget's Formal Operational Thought

12+ Years.

Systematic, scientific problem solving. Recognizes past, present, and future. Abstract and hypothetical concepts. Ethical, political, and social issues.

6

The father of pediatrics and founder of "milk stations."

Abraham Jacobi

7

Founded the Henry Street Settlement in New York City, and consequently Public Health and Community Nursing.

Lillian Wald

8

Purpose of pediatric nursing.

Promoting the highest possible state of health in children.

9

A 4-year old child is being hospitalized for the first time. His parents are apprehensive about the unknown. The nurse will best address their concerns by.

Beginning to provide anticipatory guidance explanations and preparation on first contact.

10

The single most important influence on growth in the child is thought to be.

Nutrition

11

The most effective method to prepare a child for a pediatric procedure is the.

Sensation-based approach

12

A 16-month old child was admitted to the pediatric floor following surgery for a cleft palate. Why would an elbow SRD be used?

To prevent injury to the operative area.

13

It is essential to know that in pediatric medication administration:

BSA is the most reliable method of calculating children's medication.

14

A family-centered approach to care is especially important when dealing with which group?

Special needs children.

15

An 18-month old is hospitalized for surgery in the morning. The most helpful intervention to relieve the child's stress associated with hospitalization is:

Encouraging parental presence and rooming in.

16

Location of IM injections for children under 2 years old.

Vastus lateralis muscle

Ventrogluteal muscle

Deltoid muscle

17

The most common asymmetry with lateral curvature of the spine in the adolescent is known as:

Scoliosis

18

Concern for a 6-month old that is not crawling.

Babies develop at their own rate, it is not a concern that a 6-month old is not crawling.

19

An accurate apical heart rate measurement is possible to assess at which intercostal space?

5th (2nd?)

20

A new patient is 4 years old. On entering the patient's room for the first time, the nurse will:

Be careful not to use words that might be misinterpreted by the child, such as "take your temperature."

21

A 5-month old has had abdominal surgery. With regard to pain management, the nurse will consider that:

The infant may be comforted by sucking on a pacifier, being swaddled, or being rocked.

22

When can solid foods be given?

Toddlers can be given solid foods at 4-6 months.

23

The most accurate method to measure urine output in an infant is to:

Weight the diaper before and after voiding.

24

To examine a 6-month old's ear the nurse pulls the ear:

Down and back.

25

Dental care counseling for 6-month old:

Cleanse oral cavity by wiping teeth with damp washcloth.

Avoid toothpaste, especially if fluoridated.

Initiate fluoride supplement at 6 months if water supply isn't.

26

An important factor to consider about pediatric obesity:

Being overweight or obese sometimes results in major physical or psychological health problems.

27

Patient information for 15 year old that uses chewing tobacco:

Greater risk for lip, gum, and throat cancer.

28

For infants less than 20 pounds, the car safety seat should face the ____ of the car.

Rear

29

It is acceptable for children weighing more than ____ pounds to ride in a booster seat facing the front of the car.

40 pounds

30

Parents of a 10-month old concerned about motor vehicle safety receive counseling them that:

Infants from birth to 20 pounds need to be in a rear facing safety seat.

31

Advice on sporting participation for a 6 year old school girl:

Sport participation in this age group should focus more on enjoyment rather than competition.

32

HPV vaccines are recommended for girls between what age?

11 to 26 years

33

HPV is the leading cause of:

Cervical cancer

34

According to Piaget, thinking during the first few months is primarily based on:

Reflex behavior

35

First socializing agent for the child is:

Family

36

Erikson's Task for 4 year old.

Initiative vs. Guilt

37

Most common play for ages 4 - 5.

Make-believe

38

Describe growth during school-ages period:

Slow and consistent

39

8 year old loves to do craft projects. Her need for praise and encouragement for her effort demonstrates her development of Erikson's task of:

Industry

40

Peak physical strength and endurance occurs during:

Early adulthood

41

Principle that describes the direction of growth beginning at the head and moving to the lower extremities:

Cephalocaudal

42

Cognitive approach to understanding development is explained by whose theory?

Piaget's

43

According to Erikson, when an infant is cuddled, fed, and loved, the infant will develop:

Trust

44

Type of play for a typical preschool child:

Imaginary play

45

Piaget's stage of child between 7 and 11 years.

Stage of Concrete Operation

46

In female, onset of postpuberty is marked by:

Menarche

47

Erikson's task of young adult:

Identity vs. Confusion

48

Health promoting behaviors the nurse will recommend:

Regular medical check ups.

Appropriate prescription use.

Eating low-cholesterol foods.

49

A 2-year old's negative behavior is normal for her age, helping to meet her need for:

Independence

50

Period of cognitive development where the child's knowledge comes about through sensory impressions:

Sensorimotor

51

Describe growth during school-aged period:

Steady and slow

52

Typical behavior for toddlers include:

Ritualistic behavior

53

Developmental task commonly accomplished by the fourth-month of life:

Holding head up at 90-degree angle.

54

Why should nighttime bottles be avoided, especially milk and juices?

Promote dental carries.

55

Amblyopia in preschool children may lead to:

Blindness

56

Most preventable cause of death in adolescents? (203)

Accidents

57

Laws and guidelines for safety seats: (930)

0-20 lbs: Rear facing.

20-40 lbs: Front facing.

40+ lbs: Booster seat

58

Leading cause for fatal injury in children: (195)

Motor vehicle accidents

59

Abraham Jacobi's contribution: (941)

Father of pediatrics, found of milk stations.

60

Lillian Wald's contribution: (941)

Founded public health and community nursing.

61

The correct way to measure head circumference on a child: (948)

Above the eyebrows and pinna, behind the occiput on the back of skull while child is supine.

62

Why would you delay taking a temperature for a child that is crying? (949)

Their temperatures will vary wildly, and may show a dramatic increase.

63

How do you take respirations on an infant? How do they breathe differently from adults? (950)

They are obligate mouth breathers. They are diaphragmatic (abdominal) breathers and their rates are erratic. Count for a full minute.

64

Effects of opiates on a 3-year old: (962)

Fear of respiratory depression.

65

Nurse's reaction to a child that accidentally wets the bed: (194)

Praise successes.

Ignore accidents.

66

Preferred injection sites for IM: (974)

Infant: vastus lateralis

Toddler: vastus lateralis

School age: deltoid

67

Normal respiratory rate of an infant: (189)

30 breaths per minute.

Irregular and diaphragmatic.

68

Correct way to measure urine output on an infant: (968)

Weigh the diaper before and after voiding.

Suprapubic aspiration, collection bag, or catheter.

69

Explaining the temper tantrum of an 18-month old throwing food: (194)

Frustration, inability to communicate feelings, lack of impulse control, struggling to be independent.

70

When can an infant receive solid food? (955)

6 months

71

Erik Erikson's developmental stage for ages 1-3: (187)

Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt.

Seeking independence.

72

Leading cause of death in infants and small children: (192)

Accidents

73

Height and weight expected for a 1 year old: (189)

30 inches.

21.5 pounds.

74

When does the second stage of rapid physical growth occur? (201)

Adolescence (12-19 yo)

75

How much sleep should a toddler receive? (195)

12 hours per night

+ daytime nap

76

How do you relieve anxiety in an adolescent preparing for surgery? (960)

Allow them to wear personal clothes. Inform them of the procedure ahead of time. Introduce to equipment and rooms.

77

In what order do you take infant vital signs? (949)

Respirations, pulse, temperature, BP

78

What age group views hospitalization as a threat to their independence? (961)

Adolescents

79

What kinds of things would suddenly trigger 'sucking thumbs?' (960)

Regression caused by stress from hospitalization.

80

Most important influence on the growth of a child:

Nutrition

81

What type of play is typical for a preschool child? (197)

Cooperative (share, take turns, interact)

82

At what age do you seek medical help if your child does not talk? (197)

3 years old.

83

When do you expect vision to be 20/20? (198)

School age (6-12)

84

When can a child sit up on their own? (190)

End of the 7th month.

85

Ways of introducing solid foods to a baby: (191)

One at a time, don't mix.

Cereal - fruit - vegetables - meats

86

Final stage of human growth and development:

Death

87

What age group to focus on drug education? (929)

Adolescents

88

Position immediately after feeding an infant: (966)

Right side laying so gas can rise above the level of liquid and escape as a burp.

89

What is separation anxiety? (960)

Fear of isolation from parents.

90

What is Family Centered Care? (944)

Philosophy that recognizes family as a constant. Includes parents in the circle of medical treatment.

91

How to instill ear drops in a child? (950)

Pull pinna down and back to straighten the ear canal.

92

When do you prepare toddlers for going to the hospital? (959)

Days before

93

At what Erikson's Stage do children develop trust? (187, 190)

Infancy

94

How do you take the pulse of an infant?

Apical

95

At what age are dental checkups first recommended?

6 months of age.

96

Big change in immunizations in 2000-2001:

PCV is required for 2-23 months old and 24-50 months for those at high risk.

97

Young's rule with medication:

Age (Age + 12) x Average Adult Dosage

For over 2 years old.

98

Fried's rule for medication:

Months / 150

Pediatric medication for children under 2 years old.

99

Middle ear infection:

Otitis media