Flashcards in Sensory System Disorders Deck (48):
Priority nursing intervention for chemical splash in the eyes (608)
Flush with water for >15 minutes.
How do you use the Snellen chart (608)
Stand 20' from the chart.Cover one eye.Read above or below the 20/20 line.Repeat using the other eye.Document.
Irregular shape of the cornea.
Sjogren's syndrome (615, 616)
Immunologic disorder characterized by deficient fluid production by the lacrimal, salivary, and other glands. Abnormal dryness of the mouth, eyes, and other mucous membranes.
Patient teaching for vertigo (640)
Lie down immediately.Call for help before an attack.Pull over if driving. Stay immobile.Ask for assistance.Take medications.
Medications that constrict the iris (625)
Miotics - agents that cause the pupils to constrict. This allows for the aqueous humor fluid to drain through the canal of Schlemm.Example is pilocarpine.
Group of diseases characterized by increasing IOP due to obstruction of the outflow of aqueous humor. Results in optic nerve atrophy and progressive loss of peripheral vision.
Crystalline opacity or clouding of the lens.
Signs and symptoms of retinal detachment
Flashing lights, floaters, progressive vision restriction."Curtain is being drawn down across the eye."
Best treatment for macular degeneration (dry type) (621)
AKA non-exudative nonneovascular macular degeneration. Lipid deposits lead to atrophy and degradation of tissue. There is no treatment for dry type.
Photocoagulation (621, 630)
Wet type ARMD treatment by laser to destroy abnormal blood vessels. Laser also destroys photoreceptor cells and the retina. Used to seal leaks and destroy offensive tissues.
Structure responsible for balance and coordination
Observations for presentation of diabetic retinopathy (618)
Disorder of retinal blood vessels, caused by capillary microaneurysms, hemorrhage, and exudate. Dilated and tortuous vessels with narrowing of the arteries. Opacities, hemorrhage, and microaneurysms are observed.
Post-op care for a cataract patient (617, 618)
Patient teaching: antibiotic and corticosteroid medications, avoid activities that increase IOP. Use of eye shields, contact doctor if there's pain, avoid bending, stooping, coughing, or lifting. Administer drops directly into conjunctival sac.
Home modifications for the visually impaired
Removal of area rugs, adequate lighting, and other obvious interventions.
Post-op care for cataract surgery (618)
Antibiotics - prevents infection.Corticosteroids - minimize inflammatory response.Contact doctor for erythema, pain, drainage, or vision changes.
Increase in intraoccular pressure
g l a u c o m a
Post-op care for stapeectomy (644)
External ear packing must be in place for to ensure healing. Keep in place for 5-6 days. 24 hour bed rest following surgery. Resume activity gradually. Lay flat on the operative side upwards. Open mouth when coughing or sneezing.
How to assist blind patient with ambulation
Stand about 1-foot in front of the patient and allow them to hold the back of your arm.
Major diagnostic eye test for any underlying structure of the eye (606)
Amsler's grid test - detect defects of macular area of the retina.Tangent screen - evaluates peripheral vision.Goldmann Perimetry - evaluates glaucomaSlit-lamp - examine conjunctiva, lens, vitreous humor, iris, and cornea. Fluorescein angiography - examine the microvascular structures of the eye, assess patency of the lacrimal system, and to assess for corneal abrasion.
Number one objective with an infectious eye disorder (615)
PainPrevent spread of infection
20/200 with corrective eyewear and/or visual field sight capacity reduced to 20 degrees. (The normal visual field range is 180 degrees.)
What's the use of atropine for a patient undergoing cataract surgery (627)
Dilates the pupils and paralyzes the muscles of accommodation.
Signs and symptoms of keratitis (615)
Inflammation of the cornea presents with severe eye pain. Also photophobia, tearing, edema, and visual disturbances.
c o c h l e a r i m p l a n t s
How to approach a patient with hearing deficit on one side
Approach from the face.
Visual condition of macular degeneration
Loss at the center of the visual field.
Surgical fixation of the retina (623)
Antocholinergic drug that dilates pupils and temporarily paralyzes the cilliary muscles. Used in the treatment of glaucoma, during diagnostic tests, agent for angle closure glaucoma.
Test for patient presenting with difficulty reading a newspaper
Signs and symptoms of blepharitis (613)
Pruritus, erythema of the eyelids, eyelid pain, photophobia, and excessive tearing.
Treatment of conjunctivitis due to allergies (615)
Warm NS compresses for 10-20 minutes 2-4x daily. Lid scrubbing using no tear baby shampoo. Eye irrigations. Medication administration. Should not wear contact lenses during suppuration period.
Best patient position for keratoplasty
Instructions given to patient and family having had keratoplasty (630)
Avoid bending, lifting, and straining for about 1 month to avoid increase in IOP. Family must thoroughly wash hands before coming into contact with area. Avoid powders, perfumes, and propellants which may cause sneezing. Do not rub area and limit reading.
Close your eyes and see how long you can hold your balance.
Weber's test (631)
Tuning fork test. Assesses auditory acuity. Tuning fork on the forehead and sound should be equal in both ears. Neural loss of hearing (nerve) - louder on unaffected side. Conduction loss of hearing (physical) - louder on affected side.
Reason for increased incidence of otitis media in children
Shorter eustachian tubes
Medications for labyrinthitis (639)
Inflammation of the labyrinthine canals of the inner ear. Most common cause of vertigo. Can be viral or bacterial in nature. Although no specific treatment available, treat with antibiotics, drammamine, and antivert for the vertigo.
How are the symptoms of Meniere's disease managed (641, 642)
Chronic inner ear disease characterized by recurrent episodes of deafness, progressive unilateral nerve deafness, and tinnitus. Disease is idiopathic. Can follow a middle ear infection or trauma to the head.Avoid caffeine and smoking. Valium, bendaryl, and fentanyl with innovar may be used for vertigo. Bed rest, sedation, and entiemetics may be given. Keep patient in a quiet dark room with little background noise for ease of tinnitus.
Name for turning the eyelids outwards (616)
Turning inward of eyelid.
Medication for pressure given to a patient with glaucoma
Mannitol (osmotic diuretic)
Contact lens care (613)
DO• Wash and rinse hands thoroughly before handling a lens. • Keep fingernails clean. • Remove lenses from their storage case one at a time and place on the eye. • Start with the same lens (left or right) at each insertion. • Use lens-placement technique learned from eye specialist. • Use proper lens care products and clean the lenses as directed by the manufacturer. • Keep the lens storage kit clean. • Wear lenses daily and follow the prescribed wearing schedule. • Remove a lens if it becomes uncomfortable. • Avoid potential corneal abrasions. • Report any signs of photophobia, dryness, excessive burning, or tearing. • Keep regular appointments with the eye specialist. • Remove lenses during sunbathing, showering, or swimming.DO NOT• Use soaps that contain cream or perfume for cleansing lenses.• Let fingernails touch lenses. • Mix up lenses. • Exceed prescribed wearing time. • Use saliva to wet lenses. • Use homemade saline solution or tap water to wet or clean lenses. • Borrow or mix lens care solutions.
Changes in vision for older adults (607)
Multiple changes in vision that normally occur with aging in- clude the following: —Changes in accommodation, resulting in increased diffi-culty focusing on close objects (presbyopia), which leadsto difficulty reading or doing other close work —Decreased color perception and discrimination, particu-larly with shades of blue, green, and violet —Poor adaptation to changes in light, resulting in "nightblindness" and increased sensitivity to glare due to in-creased opacity of the lens and decreased pupil size —Alterations in depth perception, leading to increased riskof falls —Decreased secretion of tears, resulting in complaints ofdryness or pruritus, which leads to a high risk for irritationof the cornea —Increased incidence of moving particles or "floaters" thatinterfere with visually based tasks. Older adults experience an increased incidence of eye dis- orders, including cataracts, retinal detachment, macular de- generation, and glaucoma. A third of all individuals older than 70 years of age have sig- nificant hearing loss.Hearing loss in older adults is most often sensorineural (presbycusis) and involves loss of the high frequencies. Hearing loss results in distortion of speech, which can lead to failure to respond to directions or inappropriate behaviors often misinterpreted as disorientation.Hearing loss can lead to social isolation when the person cannot understand and participate in normal conversation. A decreased number of receptors in the nasal cavities and papillae of the tongue results in changes in smell and taste. Most affected are the sweet and salty tastes.Medications often affect the taste of food and can contribute to altered nutrition.