PEDS Chapter 27: Growth and Development of the Preschooler (Power Point) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in PEDS Chapter 27: Growth and Development of the Preschooler (Power Point) Deck (47)
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1

Which ages encompass the preschool period ?

?

2

Average growth of __ to __ inches per year.

2.5 to 3

3

Average weight gain around __ pounds per year.

5

4

Loss of ___ ___ and growth of ___.

baby fat; muscle

5

_____ of skull increases slightly; lower jaw more ____ ; upper jaw ____.

length; pronounced; widens

6

Expected Gross Motor Skills for 4 yrs old:

Throws ball overhand.
Kicks ball forward.
Catches bounced ball.
Hops on one foot.
Stands on one foot up to 5 seconds.
Alternates feet going up and down steps.
Moves backward and forward with agility.

7

Expected Fine Motor Skills for 4 yrs old:

Uses scissors successfully.
Copies capital letters.
Draws circles and squares.
Traces a cross or diamond.
Draws a person with two to four body parts.
Laces shoes.

8

Expected Gross Motor Skills for 5 yrs old:

Stands on one foot 10 seconds or longer.
Swings and climbs well.
May skip.
Somersaults.
May learn to skate and swim.

9

Expected Gross Fine Skills for 5 yrs old:

Prints some letters.
Draws person with body and at least six parts.
Dresses/ undresses without assistance.
Can learn to tie the laces.
Uses fork, spoon, and knife (supervised) well.
Copies triangle and other geometric patterns.
Mostly cares for own toileting needs.

10

The nurse is assessing a 4-year-old for gross motor skill development. Which of the following would the nurse expect this preschooler to have accomplished?
a. hopping on one foot
b. standing on one foot for 10 seconds
c. skipping
d. swimming

a. hopping on one foot. The 4-year-old should be able to hop on one foot.
Rationale: At age 4, the preschooler hops on one foot and stands on one foot up to 5 seconds. At 5 years old the preschooler stands on one foot for 10 seconds, may skip, and may learn to skate and swim.

11

_____ of the spinal cord allows for bowel and bladder control to be complete; small intestine grows in length.

Myelination

12

Respiratory structures continue to grow in size; number of ___ increase.

alveoli

13

Eustachian tubes remain ___ and ____.

short; straight.
So pull ear down and back to administer drops.

14

Heart rate _____; blood pressure ____ slightly; innocent heart ____ may be heard.

deceases; increases;
murmur

15

___ deciduous teeth should be present.

20

16

____ remains short in children, making them susceptible to urinary tract infections.

Urethra.
So don't use bubble bath.

17

Bones increase in ___ and muscles ___ and mature.

length; strengthen

18

In Erikson’s stage of development: Initiative vs. Guilt--
Preschooler is an ___ and ___ learner.
Feels sense of ____ by succeeding in activities.
Feeling pride in accomplishment stimulates _____.
Overextending self can result in sense of ____.

inquisitive and enthusiastic;
accomplishment;
initiative;
guilt.

19

_____ (conscious development) is completed and is basis for moral development.

Superego

20

Social Skills Developed by the Preschooler:

Cooperation
Sharing (of things and feelings)
Kindness
Generosity
Affection display
Conversation
Expression of feelings
Helping others
Making friends

21

Emotional and Social Development of the Preschooler:
Friendships

Preschoolers learn how to make and keep a friend.

22

Emotional and Social Development of the Preschooler:
Temperament

Indicator of parent’s expectation of child’s behavior.
Determines child’s task orientation, social flexibility, and reactivity.

23

Emotional and Social Development of the Preschooler:
Fears

Preschoolers exhibit variety of fears.
Parents should acknowledge child’s fears.

24

Cognitive Development of the Preschooler:
Magical thinking

Believes thoughts are all-powerful

25

Cognitive Development of the Preschooler:
Imaginary friend

Creative way to sample activities and behaviors and practice conversation skills

26

Cognitive Development of the Preschooler:
Transduction

Extrapolates from one situation to another

27

Cognitive Development of the Preschooler:
Animism

Attributes life-like qualities to inanimate objects

28

Communication Skills in the Preschool Child: 4 yrs

?

29

Communication Skills in the Preschool Child: 5 yrs

?

30

Sample Nursing Diagnoses for Issues Related to Growth and Development:

Delayed growth and development
Imbalanced nutrition, less than body requirements
Interrupted family processes
Readiness for enhanced parenting
Risk for caregiver role strain
Risk for delayed development
Risk for disproportionate growth
Risk for injury