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Describe changes in puberty?
In Males

7 main chages

o Males: increase in penis and testicle size, appearance of straight pubic hair, minor voice change, 1st ejaculation, appearance of curly pubic hair, onset of max growth in height and weight, growth of hair in armpits, more detectable voice changes, & facial hair


Describe changes in puberty?
In females

7 main changes

o Females: breasts enlarge, appearance of pubic hair, hair under armpits, increase in height, hips widen then shoulders widen, then late in puberty cycle her 1st menarche occurs, no voice change, weight gain


Describe the cognitive development of adolescence

What theory is this part of?

Executive functioning?

What is increased?

cognitive changes include increase in abstract, idealistic, & logical thinking. Adolescents began to think in more egocentric ways, realizing they are unique and invulnerable.

Piaget's formal operational thought process

Executive functioning – reasoning, decision-making, critical thinking, monitoring own cognitive processes
o generate options; see several perspectives; anticipate consequences
o increased speed/capacity for information processing
o increased breadth/depth of knowledge
o increased ability to apply knowledge
o increased range and use of strategies


Analyze issues of schooling and delinquency?

• Delinquency: Masculine behaviors” are associated with aggressive behavior in certain groups
o Poverty, unemployment, and feelings of alienation feed into antisocial behavior
• Avoid Delinquency: Parental support and monitoring are important deterrents to antisocial behavior


Describe potential risks to adolescents due to high risk behaviors

• Risk factors of early sexual activity: Drug use, delinquency, teen pregnancy, STDs


Describe growth and skeletal changes of puberty

• Physical Changes in Variations in timing of puberty:
• Growth in height and weight:
o Males: 13.5 years, 4”/year
o Females: 11.5 years, 3.5”/year
Females are taller and outweigh males until about age 14


Describe the influence of the pituitary and hypothalamus in the changes associated with puberty: testosterone, estradiol.

Preocious puberty?

Preocupation with body image?

o Testosterone and Estradiol (Estrogen)
• Males: beginning 10-13.5 years, ending 13-17 yrs
• Females: beginning 9-11 years, ending 13-15 yrs
• Precocious puberty: girls before 8, boys before 9
• Preoccupation with body image
o Boys generally more positive than girls
• Early/late maturation impacts both boys and girls
o Typically, later maturation is more positive for girls, early maturation is more positive for boys.
• Motor skill capacity and expertise increases


Describe changes in the amygdala, corpus callosum and prefrontal cortex as they are related to adolescents’ ability to process information

• Corpus callosum: thickens in adolescence to process information more effectively
• Prefrontal cortex: “judgment” region continues to develop intense emotions, but full maturity occurs between ages 18-25
• Amygdala matures before the prefrontal cortex – emotional stability


How does testosterone, estradiol facilitate puberty

• puberty is facilitated by hormones:
o testosterone: associated with genital maturation, increase in height, and change in voice
o estradiol: form of estrogen for breasts, uterine, and skeletal development


Describe changes in the amygdala, corpus callosum and prefrontal cortex as they are related to adolescents’ ability to process information.

• Corpus callosum: thickens in adolescence to process information more effectively
• Prefrontal cortex: “judgment” region continues to develop intense emotions, but full maturity occurs between ages 18-25
• Amygdala matures before the prefrontal cortex – emotional stability


Identify psychological responses to physical changes

• Social Developmental Neuroscience: connections between development, brain, and socioemotional processes
o early activation of strong ‘turbo-charged’ feelings with a relatively un-skilled set of ‘driving skills’ or cognitive abilities to modulate strong emotions and motivations”


What are the issues associated with adolescent sexuality?

4 issues

• Early sexual experiences in adolescence leads to substance abuse, delinquency, and school-related problems.
• Risk factors such as socioeconomic status, poverty, family/parenting and peer factors,
• Having older siblings that are sexually active places adolescent girls at risk for pregnancy
• Attention problems & aggression lead to increased chances of having early initiation of sexual activity


What are the major causes of death in adolescents?

• Accidents-mainly motor vehicle accidents
• Homicides: especially African American males 3x more likely to be killed by guns than natural causes
• suicides


Describe Piaget formal operational thought: abstract, idealistic, logical?

Adolescent egocentrism?

Imaginary audience?

Personal fable?

• Piaget: Formal operational thought
o More abstract
o Idealistic –possibilities
o Logical and problem solving; hypothetical and deductive reasoning
• Adolescent egocentrism (heightened self-consciousness), belief that others are as interested in them as they are in themselves
• Imaginary audience: involves feeling one is center of everyone’s attention and sensing one is on stage
• Personal fable: adolescent’s sense of personal uniqueness and invincibility


Define how this level of thought influences academics



Define secondary school issues: transition issues, top-dog phenomenon

Transition issues 4 characteristics

Positive influences?

• Transition issues: increased responsibility, independence in association, decreased dependence on parents, more impersonal experience. Big transition between MS and HS, Most effective schools: Lower student/counselor ratio, High involvement of parents and community, Team teaching configuration, Focus on student health and fitness, High expectations and support
• Positive influences:
• Extracurricular activities: diverse activities including sports, academic clubs, band, drama, and math clubs
• Service learning opportunities: form of education that promotes social responsibility and service to community
• Top-dog phenomenon: circumstance of moving from the top position in elementary (oldest, most powerful) to the lowest middle school (youngest, least powerful)


Identify goals and controversies for secondary school

3 goals
3 controversies

• Goals: “personalizing instruction, show interest in students’ lives, creating a supportive caring social environment”
• Controversies: low expectations, alienation, & low achievement


Identify the reasons for the high dropout rates in some populations:

5 reasons

• School-related: Not liking school, being suspended, or expelled
• Family-related: parents are not involved in their child’s life
• Economic: economically supporting family
• Peer-related: friends dropped out
• Personal reasons: pregnancy or marriage


Identify solutions to keep students in school

• Early detection of school-related difficulties
• Programs focused on reading, tutoring, counseling, and mentoring
• Engaging children in positive ways to be involved in school activities


What constitutes effective schools for young adolescents


• Developing smaller “communities” to decrease the impersonal nature of MS
• Lowering student: teacher ratio
• Developing curricula to increase literacy, knowledge of sciences, sense of health, ethics, & citizenship
• Involving parents & community leaders in schools
• Team-teach in flexible curriculum blocks
• Boost students’ health & fitness with more in-school programs
• Help students who need public health care


What reduces adolescent drug use

name 5 reasons

• Early educational achievement, positive relationships with parents, parental monitoring, having friends within their school’s social network, & fewer friends who abuse substances


What propels teens to use drugs?

name 3 reasons

• Having a friend who abuses the substance, weak academic orientation, & low parental support


Delinquency- what social emotional factors contribute to delinquency

earlier development of puberty poor family relationships, abuse, early sexual activity


Teen pregnancy –What are the risks to the mother?- 3 risk What are the risks to the infant? 3 risk
What facilitates teen pregnancy? What are some successful tactics to reduce teen pregnancy

• What are the risks to the mother?
o Drop out of school, lower achievement scores, & behavioral problems
• What are the risks to the infant?
o Low birth rates, neurological problems, & childhood illness
• What facilitates teen pregnancy?
o The United States doesn’t have a strong view on “childbearing being an adult activity” compared to other countries
o Do not send clear messages about sexual behavior: the media glamorizes it and adults do not have clear messages about sexual behavior. Other countries promote safe sex expect it to only occur within long term relationships while the US adults do not have a high expectation on the adolescents here who have sporadic relationships and partners.
o The US is not as accepting as other countries with the idea of teens having sex just “adults” so they do not have as readily available multiple family planning services that are easily accessible without red tape


Suicide – What factors contribute to this issue?

• Suicide is a side effect of Prozac and some of the other anti-depressants
• Risk factors include poor familial experiences and poor peer relations including peer victimization
• Alcohol is an increasing part of the risk factor for both sexes
• Males show less prevalence with African American and non-Latino whites
• Stress has been reported as an increasing risk factor for Latino populations.


Eating disorders - What are anorexia & bulimia? Who is at risk for these disorders

• Anorexia: pursuit of thinness through starvation
• Bulimia: individual consistently follows a binge-then-purge eating pattern


Who is at risk for these disorders

• Adolescents or emerging adults from Non-Latino White families, well-educated, middle to upper class
• Factors:
o Body image: most are dissatisfied with the image
o Parenting: observing parents with healthy eating habits and exercise increased adolescents’ healthy habits
o Sexual activity: sexually active or pubertal transition girls are more likely to diet or engage in eating disorders
o Role models and media: girls who are motivated to look like same-sex figures in media are more likely to be concerned about their weight


Describe the goal to balance autonomy and attachment?

• Adolescents push for autonomy
• The parent must balance the relinquish of control with necessary guidance
• Although there are frequent disagreements, parents are important attachment and support figures
• GOAL: allow adolescents to gain ability to make mature decisions on their own with their parents guidance along the way


Describe parent/adolescent conflict: causes/resolutions?

• Moderate problems, everyday negotiations, & minor disputes create a positive developmental function of helping the adolescent transition from childhood dependency to adult independence
• Keep conflict from escalating by keeping:
o Open communication
o Active listener
o Respect adolescent’s developing status
o Communicate expectations for achievement & conduct standards


Peer pressure- crowds, cliques. What is the purpose of each? How does it influence adolescent behavior?

• Peer pressure: young adolescents conform more to peer standards than children do. This can cause an individual who is unsure about their social identity, have a low self-esteem, or those who have high social anxiety will most likely conform
• Crowds: larger than cliques & less personal; self-esteem can increase probability to becoming a member & due to membership self-esteem increases;
• Cliques: a small group that ranges from 2 to 12 individuals, averaging 5 to 6 individuals, and one that can form because adolescents can engage in similar activities. Develop an in-group identity, share ideas, & build a friendship