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Flashcards in Peds final Deck (60):
1

Describe changes in puberty?
In Males

7 main chages

o Males: increase in penis and testicle size, appearance of straight pubic hair, minor voice change, 1st ejaculation, appearance of curly pubic hair, onset of max growth in height and weight, growth of hair in armpits, more detectable voice changes, & facial hair

2

Describe changes in puberty?
In females

7 main changes

o Females: breasts enlarge, appearance of pubic hair, hair under armpits, increase in height, hips widen then shoulders widen, then late in puberty cycle her 1st menarche occurs, no voice change, weight gain

3

Describe the cognitive development of adolescence

What theory is this part of?

Executive functioning?

What is increased?

cognitive changes include increase in abstract, idealistic, & logical thinking. Adolescents began to think in more egocentric ways, realizing they are unique and invulnerable.

Piaget's formal operational thought process

Executive functioning – reasoning, decision-making, critical thinking, monitoring own cognitive processes
o generate options; see several perspectives; anticipate consequences
o increased speed/capacity for information processing
o increased breadth/depth of knowledge
o increased ability to apply knowledge
o increased range and use of strategies

4

Analyze issues of schooling and delinquency?

• Delinquency: Masculine behaviors” are associated with aggressive behavior in certain groups
o Poverty, unemployment, and feelings of alienation feed into antisocial behavior
• Avoid Delinquency: Parental support and monitoring are important deterrents to antisocial behavior

5

Describe potential risks to adolescents due to high risk behaviors

• Risk factors of early sexual activity: Drug use, delinquency, teen pregnancy, STDs

6

Describe growth and skeletal changes of puberty

• Physical Changes in Variations in timing of puberty:
• Growth in height and weight:
o Males: 13.5 years, 4”/year
o Females: 11.5 years, 3.5”/year
Females are taller and outweigh males until about age 14

7

Describe the influence of the pituitary and hypothalamus in the changes associated with puberty: testosterone, estradiol.

Preocious puberty?

Preocupation with body image?

o Testosterone and Estradiol (Estrogen)
• Males: beginning 10-13.5 years, ending 13-17 yrs
• Females: beginning 9-11 years, ending 13-15 yrs
• Precocious puberty: girls before 8, boys before 9
• Preoccupation with body image
o Boys generally more positive than girls
• Early/late maturation impacts both boys and girls
o Typically, later maturation is more positive for girls, early maturation is more positive for boys.
• Motor skill capacity and expertise increases

8

Describe changes in the amygdala, corpus callosum and prefrontal cortex as they are related to adolescents’ ability to process information

• Corpus callosum: thickens in adolescence to process information more effectively
• Prefrontal cortex: “judgment” region continues to develop intense emotions, but full maturity occurs between ages 18-25
• Amygdala matures before the prefrontal cortex – emotional stability

9

How does testosterone, estradiol facilitate puberty

• puberty is facilitated by hormones:
o testosterone: associated with genital maturation, increase in height, and change in voice
o estradiol: form of estrogen for breasts, uterine, and skeletal development

10

Describe changes in the amygdala, corpus callosum and prefrontal cortex as they are related to adolescents’ ability to process information.

• Corpus callosum: thickens in adolescence to process information more effectively
• Prefrontal cortex: “judgment” region continues to develop intense emotions, but full maturity occurs between ages 18-25
• Amygdala matures before the prefrontal cortex – emotional stability

11

Identify psychological responses to physical changes

• Social Developmental Neuroscience: connections between development, brain, and socioemotional processes
o early activation of strong ‘turbo-charged’ feelings with a relatively un-skilled set of ‘driving skills’ or cognitive abilities to modulate strong emotions and motivations”

12

What are the issues associated with adolescent sexuality?

4 issues

• Early sexual experiences in adolescence leads to substance abuse, delinquency, and school-related problems.
• Risk factors such as socioeconomic status, poverty, family/parenting and peer factors,
• Having older siblings that are sexually active places adolescent girls at risk for pregnancy
• Attention problems & aggression lead to increased chances of having early initiation of sexual activity

13

What are the major causes of death in adolescents?

• Accidents-mainly motor vehicle accidents
• Homicides: especially African American males 3x more likely to be killed by guns than natural causes
• suicides

14

Describe Piaget formal operational thought: abstract, idealistic, logical?

Adolescent egocentrism?

Imaginary audience?

Personal fable?

• Piaget: Formal operational thought
o More abstract
o Idealistic –possibilities
o Logical and problem solving; hypothetical and deductive reasoning
• Adolescent egocentrism (heightened self-consciousness), belief that others are as interested in them as they are in themselves
• Imaginary audience: involves feeling one is center of everyone’s attention and sensing one is on stage
• Personal fable: adolescent’s sense of personal uniqueness and invincibility

15

Define how this level of thought influences academics

n/a

16

Define secondary school issues: transition issues, top-dog phenomenon

Transition issues 4 characteristics

Positive influences?

• Transition issues: increased responsibility, independence in association, decreased dependence on parents, more impersonal experience. Big transition between MS and HS, Most effective schools: Lower student/counselor ratio, High involvement of parents and community, Team teaching configuration, Focus on student health and fitness, High expectations and support
• Positive influences:
• Extracurricular activities: diverse activities including sports, academic clubs, band, drama, and math clubs
• Service learning opportunities: form of education that promotes social responsibility and service to community
• Top-dog phenomenon: circumstance of moving from the top position in elementary (oldest, most powerful) to the lowest middle school (youngest, least powerful)

17

Identify goals and controversies for secondary school

3 goals
3 controversies

• Goals: “personalizing instruction, show interest in students’ lives, creating a supportive caring social environment”
• Controversies: low expectations, alienation, & low achievement

18

Identify the reasons for the high dropout rates in some populations:

5 reasons

• School-related: Not liking school, being suspended, or expelled
• Family-related: parents are not involved in their child’s life
• Economic: economically supporting family
• Peer-related: friends dropped out
• Personal reasons: pregnancy or marriage

19

Identify solutions to keep students in school

• Early detection of school-related difficulties
• Programs focused on reading, tutoring, counseling, and mentoring
• Engaging children in positive ways to be involved in school activities

20

What constitutes effective schools for young adolescents

7

• Developing smaller “communities” to decrease the impersonal nature of MS
• Lowering student: teacher ratio
• Developing curricula to increase literacy, knowledge of sciences, sense of health, ethics, & citizenship
• Involving parents & community leaders in schools
• Team-teach in flexible curriculum blocks
• Boost students’ health & fitness with more in-school programs
• Help students who need public health care

21

What reduces adolescent drug use

name 5 reasons

• Early educational achievement, positive relationships with parents, parental monitoring, having friends within their school’s social network, & fewer friends who abuse substances

22

What propels teens to use drugs?

name 3 reasons

• Having a friend who abuses the substance, weak academic orientation, & low parental support

23

Delinquency- what social emotional factors contribute to delinquency

earlier development of puberty poor family relationships, abuse, early sexual activity

24

Teen pregnancy –What are the risks to the mother?- 3 risk What are the risks to the infant? 3 risk
What facilitates teen pregnancy? What are some successful tactics to reduce teen pregnancy

• What are the risks to the mother?
o Drop out of school, lower achievement scores, & behavioral problems
• What are the risks to the infant?
o Low birth rates, neurological problems, & childhood illness
• What facilitates teen pregnancy?
o The United States doesn’t have a strong view on “childbearing being an adult activity” compared to other countries
o Do not send clear messages about sexual behavior: the media glamorizes it and adults do not have clear messages about sexual behavior. Other countries promote safe sex expect it to only occur within long term relationships while the US adults do not have a high expectation on the adolescents here who have sporadic relationships and partners.
o The US is not as accepting as other countries with the idea of teens having sex just “adults” so they do not have as readily available multiple family planning services that are easily accessible without red tape

25

Suicide – What factors contribute to this issue?

• Suicide is a side effect of Prozac and some of the other anti-depressants
• Risk factors include poor familial experiences and poor peer relations including peer victimization
• Alcohol is an increasing part of the risk factor for both sexes
• Males show less prevalence with African American and non-Latino whites
• Stress has been reported as an increasing risk factor for Latino populations.

26

Eating disorders - What are anorexia & bulimia? Who is at risk for these disorders

• Anorexia: pursuit of thinness through starvation
• Bulimia: individual consistently follows a binge-then-purge eating pattern

27

Who is at risk for these disorders

• Adolescents or emerging adults from Non-Latino White families, well-educated, middle to upper class
• Factors:
o Body image: most are dissatisfied with the image
o Parenting: observing parents with healthy eating habits and exercise increased adolescents’ healthy habits
o Sexual activity: sexually active or pubertal transition girls are more likely to diet or engage in eating disorders
o Role models and media: girls who are motivated to look like same-sex figures in media are more likely to be concerned about their weight

28

Describe the goal to balance autonomy and attachment?

• Adolescents push for autonomy
• The parent must balance the relinquish of control with necessary guidance
• Although there are frequent disagreements, parents are important attachment and support figures
• GOAL: allow adolescents to gain ability to make mature decisions on their own with their parents guidance along the way

29

Describe parent/adolescent conflict: causes/resolutions?

• Moderate problems, everyday negotiations, & minor disputes create a positive developmental function of helping the adolescent transition from childhood dependency to adult independence
• Keep conflict from escalating by keeping:
o Open communication
o Active listener
o Respect adolescent’s developing status
o Communicate expectations for achievement & conduct standards

30

Peer pressure- crowds, cliques. What is the purpose of each? How does it influence adolescent behavior?

• Peer pressure: young adolescents conform more to peer standards than children do. This can cause an individual who is unsure about their social identity, have a low self-esteem, or those who have high social anxiety will most likely conform
• Crowds: larger than cliques & less personal; self-esteem can increase probability to becoming a member & due to membership self-esteem increases;
• Cliques: a small group that ranges from 2 to 12 individuals, averaging 5 to 6 individuals, and one that can form because adolescents can engage in similar activities. Develop an in-group identity, share ideas, & build a friendship

31

How does dating contribute to social-emotional development?

3 positives
5 negatives

• Dating can create higher levels of social acceptance, friendship competence, & romantic competence
• Negatively affect development: higher levels of substance abuse, delinquency, & sexual behavior, adolescent pregnancy, problems at home & school

32

Does our culture have rites of passage? What are these rites of passage?

• Rite of passage: ceremony or ritual that marks an individual’s transition of status from one thing to the next
• The US as a whole does not, but religious and social groups in the US do

33

What are these rights of passage

• Debutante balls, bat mitzvah, graduations, pinning ceremonies

34

Ethnicity and diversity - How do these issues affect the developing adolescent

• Ethnicity: characteristic based on cultural heritage, nationality, race, religion, & Language
• Diversity: quality of being different
• Double Disadvantages:
1. Prejudice, discrimination, and bias because of their ethnic minority status
2. Stressful effects of poverty

35

Define assimilation and pluralism

assimilation:• Assimilation: Piagetian concept involving incorporation of new information into existing schemes
• Pluralism:refers to a society, system of government, or organization that has different groups that keep their identities while existing with other groups or a more dominant group.

36

Explain Erickson’s stage of identity vs. identity confusion

• Erickson states that adolescents are faced with deciding who they are, what they are all about, & where they are going in life. There’s a gap between childhood security and adult autonomy where society leaves adolescents relatively free of their culture’s identity files, experiment with different roles, & personalities. Adolescents discard unwanted roles. Those who successfully cope with conflicting identities emerge with a new sense of self, identity. Those who do not resolve their identity crisis are suffering from Identity Confusion. This confusion can cause withdrawing from peers and family or they immerse themselves in their world of peers and get lost in the crowd

37

Explain Marcia’s four stages of identity status

4 stages

what is a crisis what is a commitment?


• Identity Diffusion: status of individuals who have not yet experienced a crisis (explored alternatives) or made any commitments
• Identity Foreclosure: status of individuals who have made a commitment but have not yet experienced a crisis
• Identity Moratorium: individuals who are in the midst of a crisis but whose commitments are absent or vaguely defined
• Identity Achievement: individuals who have undergone a crisis and have made a commitment
• Crisis: period of identity development where the individual is exploring alternative (Exploration)
• Commitment: personal investment in identity

38

Who developed SI Theory and what disciplines are incorporated into SI Theory

-A .Jean ayres this discipline involves neuroscience and psychology

39

Major tenets of SI theory

Integrated sensation is “nourishment for the
brain.”
• Adaptive responses are required to successfully
meet challenges essential for growth and
development.
• The inner drive of the human being invites the
experience of life.
• Active participation promotes organization.
• Artful vigilance

40

Target population for intervention

Individuals with sensory dysfunction and sensory processing disorder other mental illnesses

41

Definition/description of sensory integration

“Sensory integration is the
neurological process that
organizes sensations from one’s
own body and from the
environment, and makes it
possible to use the body effectively
within the environment. Sensory
integration is information
processing.”

42

Main subtypes of Sensory Processing Disorder

-sensory modulation disorder
sensory over responsive
sensory under responsive
sensory craving

-sensory-based motor disorder
-dyspraxia
-postural disorder

sensory discrimination disorder

43

Review the 10 characteristics of occupational therapy intervention using an SI approach

n

44

What are the issues associated with adolescent sexuality?

4 issues

• Early sexual experiences in adolescence leads to substance abuse, delinquency, and school-related problems.
• Risk factors such as socioeconomic status, poverty, family/parenting and peer factors,
• Having older siblings that are sexually active places adolescent girls at risk for pregnancy
• Attention problems & aggression lead to increased chances of having early initiation of sexual activity
-developing a sexual identity
-sexual risk taking
-Timing and trends in adolescent sexual behavior

45

Who developed SI Theory and what disciplines are incorporated into SI Theory

-A .Jean ayres this discipline involves neuroscience and psychology, biology, and education,
The brains ability to process sensory information and motor capabilities
Occupational therapy with a sensory integration approach

46

Major tenets of SI theory

Integrated sensation is “nourishment for the
brain.”
• The inner drive of the human being invites the
experience of life.
• Active participation promotes organization.
• Artful vigilance
-learning is dependent on the ability to take in and process sensation
-Individuals who have a decreased ability to process sensation also may have difficulty producing appropriate actions
-Enhanced sensation, as part of meaningful activity

47

Main subtypes of Sensory Processing Disorder

-sensory modulation disorder
Problem turning sensory messages into regulated behaviors
sensory over responsive
extremely sensitive
sensory under responsive
unaware of sensation
sensory craving
always need more input

-sensory-based motor disorder
weak with poor endurance/ clumsy and awkward
-dyspraxia
poor motor planning
-postural disorder
poor core stability
poor endurance/ lazy or clumsy

sensory discrimination disorder:
Poor interpretation of sensory information
Visual
auditory
tactile
smell

48

Review the 10 characteristics of occupational therapy intervention using an SI approach

provide sensory opportunities
provide just-right challenges
collaborate on activity choice
guide self-organization
support optimal arousal
create play context
maximize childs success
ensure physical safety
arrange room to engage child
foster therapuetic alliance

49

What is the purpose of IDEA how has it affected how children are educated

Purpose of IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) and how it has affected how children with disabilities are educated
• Stipulated that students with disabilities be educated in their neighborhood schools with same age peers unless the nature and severity of the disability requires another arrangement. This is called Least Restrictive Environment (LRE).
• Purpose was to increase the amount of schools educating only children with disabilities. Most children with disabilities were excluded from the education system and many lived in institutions where they were accommodated, not assessed, educated, and rehabilitated.
• Guaranteed a free, appropriate public education for each child with a disability aged 3-21 in every state across the country.

50

Role of occupational therapy in the educational model

• To help in transportation and such developmental, corrective, and other supportive services that are required to assist a child with a disability to benefit from special education
practitioners collaborate with early childhood and school teams to promote the physical, communication, cognitive, adaptive, and social-emotional domains of infants and toddlers. As a related service under Part B of IDEA and a pupil service under Elementary and Secondary Education Act (also known as No Child Left Behind), occupational therapy practitioners support children and youth by promoting participation in home, school, and community life.


51

How OT services are delivered in schools

• Evaluating therapist makes a recommendation to the IEP team whether OT services are required for the child to access and progress in his/her educational program
• Decision to add OT services is left to child’s IEP team not OT
• Goals promote participation in and access to the child’s educational program.
• Goals must be measureable and educationally relevant
• Goals are written to reflect what the child will do, not what service is provided. THERE ARE NO OT GOALS. All members of the IEP team are responsible for all of the goals; however, there are goals that OT support will focus on more than the others
• Collaborate with teachers, paraprofessionals and parents
There may be recommendations regarding classroom or assignment modifications or adaptations provided to the teachers,

52

Reflexes Denver II

 to help health providers detect potential developmental problems in in young children
 The test gives a comparison of the child’s performance to the performance of other children of the same age
 Consists of 125 items which are arranged in 4 sections:
o

53

Beery VMI- Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration:

 Children’s ability to copy geometric forms correlated to academic achievement
 Purpose: To assess the ability to coordinate visual perception and finger-hand movements
 Ages 3 to adult
 Developmental sequence of 27 geometric forms that are to be copied with pencil and paper.
 Supplemental tests were developed to tease out relative strengths and weaknesses in visual perception or motor control skills
 Sequence and script must be followed for validity of results: VMI, Visual Perception, Motor tests
 VMI is not timed, but there are time limits to the Visual Perception (3 min.) and Motor Control(5 min.) tests

54

Motor-Free Visual Perception Test (MVPT)

 Purpose to assess overall visual perceptual ability.
 Perceptual skills targeted are spatial relationships, visual discrimination, figure-ground, visual closure, and visual memory. .
 A series of pictures are presented; child must choose the correct answer from 4 choices.
 No motor responses required; child can point to the correct answer or say the letter that corresponds to the answer.

55

TVPS- Test of Visual Perceptual Skills

 Tests visual perceptual abilities in 7 areas:
o Visual Discrimination
o Visual Memory
o Spatial Relationships
o Form Constancy
o Sequential Memory
o Visual Figure-Ground
o Visual Closure
 Requires limited motor skills to respond
 Targeted population: ages 4 – 18yrs, 11months
 16 plates in each of the 7 categories, plus 2 examples
 Can usually be completed in 30 minutes

56

Peabody development motor scales

 An early childhood motor development designed to assess motor skills of children from birth through 5 years of age.
 PDMS-2 Test can be used by Medical, Allied health, Educators, and others interested in examining the motor abilities of young children
 PDMS comprises of six components (Subtests)
o Reflexes- Birth – 11 months
o Stationary- All ages
o Locomotion- All ages
o Object manipulation- 12 months and older
o Grasping –All ages
o Visual motor integration – All ages

57

Piaget's cognitive levels

• Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory
 Children construct their understanding of the world and go through 4 stages
 1. Sensorimotor stage
o Lasts from birth – 2 years old
o Infants construct understanding of the world by coordinating sensory with physical/motor actions
 2. Preoperational
o Age 2-7 years old
o Kids represent the world with images and drawings
 3. Concrete Operational
o Age 7-11 years old
o Can reason logically with concrete example
o Ex. Child will know 5 nickels is the same thing as 1 quarter
 4. Formal Operational
o Age 11-15 years old
o Abstract and logical thinking

58

Erickson's levels

• Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory
 Believed human behavior is social and stem from a desire to affiliate with other people
 8 stages of development
 1. Trust vs. Mistrust
• Experienced in 1st year of life. In gaining trust in caregivers infants discover their own personality and learn if the world is a pleasant place to live
 2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
• 1-3 yrs old. If kids are punished too much they began to develop and sense of shame and doubt
 3.Intiative vs. Guilt
• Preschool age
• Assuming responsibility for their bodies, behavior, toys etc. If child is irresponsible they may feel guilty
 4. Industry vs. Inferiority
• Elementary school. Child directs their energy toward mastering knowledge. If child does bad, they may feel incompetent and unproductive
 5. Identity vs. Identity confusion
• Adolescent years. Finding out who they are
 6.Intimacy vs Isolation
• Early adulthood. If intimacy is not found with another person the teen will feel isolated
 7. Generativity vs. Stagnation
• Middle adulthood. Helping the younger generation develop and lead useful lives. The feeling of not helping is stagnation
 8. Integrity vs. Despair
• Late adulthood. Person reflects back on life and feels wither positive of negative about it

59

screening

gathering information to determine whether an evaluation is necessary

60

evaluation

the process of obtaining and interpreting data necessary for intervention