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Flashcards in neuro Deck (39):
1

Factors leading to age related damage?

-proper nutrition-eating a healthy diet unhealthy foods can lead to disease
-physical fitness- proper physical fitness, getting enough exercise is good for maintaining health
-mental activity-stimulating brain activities such as reading a book instead of watching tv
-strong social relationships
friends
life long alliances
extended family
community membership
-remeber to keep moving

2

PET scans are usually the same for

individuals in their 80s and in their 20s

3

Degree of neuronal loss, plaques, enzymatic activity ranges from

5% to 30%

4

percentage of what age groups have dementia
65-75
74-85
>85

65-75=5%
75-84=20%
>85=50%

5

Many symptoms of demetia

speed of processing decreases:performance small, decreases in memory, perception and language.

6

what percent of dementia and alzheimers is genetically based

50percent

7

average onset of dementia and alzheimers

80's but could be in 40's through 60's

8

Dementia
Degenerative:what is it?

progressive loss of memory and cognitive function

9

Dementia
related symptoms:

depression, disorientation, mood swings, personality changes, loss of bowels and bladder control,decreased concentration and communication

10

Dementia
when does death occur

5-10 years after diagnosis

11

dementia
indicators

difficulty in doing simple task, everyday task, and brain scans

12

Age related damage contributors
6 contributors

age at onset of damage
physical brain alterations
medical history
genetics
lifespan use of brain
apparent in 50s and 60s pronounced at 70

13

damage in areas of the brain diencephalon and brainstem

substantia niagra and crueles lose neurons:20-40% in healthy seniors, 70% or more due to parkinson's disease

14

damage in areas of the brain limbic system

hippocampus loses 5% of neurons each decade 50+ about 20% total
however net growth of dendrites occur in 40s and 50s
decreases occur in 80s and 90s neuroplasticity

15

other general age related damage
-DNA
-Oxidation of cells
Degeneration of Myelin

dna
-damage in cells due to aging
-repair mechanisms become less efficient
-dna in mitochondria becomes defective
oxidation of cells
oxidation of proteins thought to facilitate loss of mental functions
Degeneration of myelin
efficiency of neural communication
speed of processing and movement

16

autism spectrum disorder, formerly called asperger's syndrome

social communication disorder formerly called extreme male brain

17

differences in male and female brain

wiring?

-male brain wired for systematizing
analysis of external world, inanimate objects,build mechanical, governmental gaming systems
-female brain wired for empathy
facial expression, nonverbal communication
foster co-coperation, and group well-being

18

differences in male and female
skill set

-males
mathematical
navigating a route
spatial skills
motor skills
female skills
-perceptual speed
-verbal fluency
-arithmetic calculation
-recalling landmarks from a route
-precision fm skills
-recalling objecs and location
-replacing objects in original location

19

brain anatomical differences men vs women

cortex?
amygdala?
corpus callosum?
areas?

men greater parietal lobe math skill
men greater amygdala vs women greater connections with amydala
women greater frontal lobe executive function
women greater corpus callosum- language literal meaning and emotional tone
broca's/wernickes area-greater in women matures easily

20

in many cases behavior pathology is the result of a neurotransmitter system

antitransmitters
reuptake
down regulation

antitransmitter- break down and destroy neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft, the postsynaptic neuron can repolarize and fire again
reuptake-the presynaptic terminal can reasorb the neurotransmitter
down regulation-fewer receptor sites on the post synaptic neuron

21

what percent of population experience depression at some point in their lifetime

16%

22

incidence of affected
difference decreases after what age

2 to 1 men to women affected; differences decreases after age 55

23

factors of depression

heredity, physiology, diet, medical

24

neurotransmitters indicated in depression

serotonin, dopamine , norepinephrine

25

what is clinical depression

marked by a depressed mood most of the day particularly in the morning, and a loss of interest in normal activites or relationships

26

depression symptoms

5 main symptoms

-impaired concentration indecisiveness
-insomnia and hypersomnia
-markedly diminished interest or pleasure in almost all activities
-fatigue or loss of energy
-feelings or worthlessness or guilt



27

depression treatments

5 different treatment and there medications

-selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors-prozac, paxil, lexapro, celexa, and zoloft
-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors-edronax
-serotonin -norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors-effexor, cymbalta-
-norepinephrine dopamine reupatake inhibitors-wellbutrin
-Trycyclics and monamine oxidase inhibitors-

28

Anxiety disorders
what are they?
what part of brain?
genetic environmental origins?
treatment?

panic attack, ptsd, phobias
-excessive fears, worries and distress that interfere with functioning
-amygdala and limbic system
-stressors, trauma, parenting styles
-most affective with focus on pharmacuetical and cognitive behavior intervention
-

29

Addiction risk influence?

risk of addiction are influenced by genetic, neurochemical, and environmental factors.

30

addiction process and brain structures

mesolimbic system
activation of?

mesolimbic system- encourages repetition of pleasurable behavior for survival
activation of ventral tegmental area-midbrain- action potential signal to the nucleus acumbens in the limbic system.release of dopamine also connections to the frontal cortex, motivation, and pleasure.

31

Tolerance

overtime substance no longer provides the same level of pleasure

32

Cravings

brain produces intense desire for substance

33

sensitazation

during abstinence brain adapts by becoming more sensitized, which results in heightened pleasure and possible relapse

34

primary neural pathway in addiction

primary transmitter

ventral tegmental area of the - midbrain projects to frontal cortex

primary transmitter is dopamine

35

drugs of abuse increase
affect the?

dopamine levels, affect the mesolimbic reward system with greater intensity and persistence than other pleasurable activities

36

priming

-associate euphoria with people and things involved
-other compulsive behaviors:drugs, gambling, eating disorders, shopping, kleptomania, sex

37

low levels of dopamine =

greater risk for substance abuse

38

addiction treatment

naltrexone- prevents drug from reaching neurologic target
blocks receptors
methadone-mimics drugs effects to reduce cravings low level receptor opiod activation

39

Areas of the brain involved in pleasure?

midbrain, amygdala; connections with hippocampus