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Flashcards in Patho Final Exam Deck (117):
1

Atherosclerosis

narrowing and hardening of arteries due to plaque build up

2

High blood pressure

diastolic-inability to fill ventricle
constriction or trapping of ventricle
hear is relaxed

systolic-lack of pumping strength of ventricle
back up of blood behind weakened ventricle
Atherosclerosis leading to chronic ischemia
heart is contracted

3

High blood pressure

diastolic-inability to fill ventricle
constriction or trapping of ventricle

systolic-lack of pumping strength of ventricle
back up of blood behind weakened ventricle
Atherosclerosis leading to chronic ischemia

4

Thrombophlebitis/deep vein thrombosis

blood clot or platelet that form in deep veins of the body usually in the legs or lower extremity

5

Angia pectoris

chest pain or chest discomfort seen in ischemic heart disease is related to having a heart attack occurs because lack of blood suppy to the heart
• Pain in neck , jaw, shoulder or chest
• Times of physical and emotional stress

6

Aortic Dissection

tearing or seperation of aortic walls which allow blood to get through to the aorta

7

Lymphedema

abnormal accumalation of high protein fluid forming just beneath the skin due to damage to lymph vessels or removal of the lymph nodes

8

shock

-low blood perfusion
-low blood pressure

cardiogenic-heart failure
hypovelimic- blood loss
septic-infection of the blood
anaphalctic shock-hypersensitivity reaction

9

Acute respiratory distress syndrome

what is it?

symptoms?

•Endothelial injury loss of fluids and proteins
Acute lung inflammation and diffuse alveolar capillary
• Sepsis and multiple trauma two common predisposed . Also pneumonia, near drowning , burns
• Characterized by severe hypoxemia

10

Multi-organ dysfunction syndrome

occurs during?

caused by?

• Failure of 2 or more systems due to injury or illness
• Leads to organ death, occurs during sepsis
• Caused by ischemia or impaired perfusion to organ from episode of shock or trauma

11

Disseminated Intravascular coagulation

why does this hapen

• Proteins that control blood clotting become overactive in blood vessels
• Not an illness, a complication
• Creates blood clots in many organs
• Normal clotting is disrupted as severe bleeding can occur

12

syncope

Occurs when?

• Loss of consciousness and posture
• Related to temporary insufficient blood flow to the brain
• When BP is too low and heart doesn't pump oxygenated blood to brain

13

end stage renal disease

who is more commonly affected?

Symptoms?

As common as what?

•Final stage of kidney disease, kidneys are no longer functioning well enough to meet needs of daily life
•On dialysis
•Diabetics with high BP are more likely to be effected
•Decrease in urine output, inability to urinate, changes in skin color, excessive theist
•As common as heart attack
•Not in the end stage until your kidneys stopped working

14

Ascites

What is it?

What causes it?

Symptoms?

• Accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity most common cause of acid tights is advanced liver diseases or cirrhosis
• Occurs when the liver spots working
• Loss of appetite and shortness of breath
• Caused by liver scarring this increase pressure inside the liver is blood vessels

15

Temporal Arteritis

lack of blood supply to the head caused by narrowing or hardening of the arteries
-excessive sweating
-vision loss
-throbbing headache
-fatigue and weakness

16

Congestive Heart Failure Right vs. Left



Characteristics or symptoms

-left side stops working first followed by right side
-increased swelling in the abdomen
-left side pushes oxygenated blood and right side manages deoxygenated blood
-once failure gets to the right side you see severe pitting and edma
SYMPTOMS
-Diminished of pumping ability of left ventricle
-Back up of blood in the pulmonary vasculature
-Pulmonary edema-accumulation of fluid in air sacs of the lungs causing shortness of breath
-Peripheral edema-tissue swelling ususally in the lower limbs
lower legs sweating, perfus fluid loss

17

Arteriosclerosis

thickening and hardening of the arteries or blood vessels that affect blood flow

18

Congestive Heart Failure Right vs. Left



Characteristics or symptoms

-left side stops working first followed by right side
-increased swelling in the abdomen
-left side pushes oxygenated blood and right side manages deoxygenated blood
-once failure gets to the right side you see severe pitting and edma
SYMPTOMS
-Diminished of pumping ability of left ventricle
-Back up of blood in the pulmonary vasculature
-Pulmonary edema
-Peripheral edema

19

Myocardial Infarction

Heart attack

Cardiogenic heart failure
-loss of pumping strength
Arrythmias
-Irritable electrical conduction
Vascular dysfunction
-Involvement of papillary muscles
Rupture and tamponade

20

Arrythymias ( know each type and the prognosis ie. Ventricular tachycardia)

Abnormal heart rhythm or heart beat that can lead to death depending on severity of disease seen in myocarditis, myocardial infarction, and Ischemic heart disease

21

Cor pulmonale

Enlargement and failure of the right ventricle due to increased vascular resistance or high blood pressure in lungs
• Silent illness that leads to heart disease

22

Rheumatic Heart Disease

Scarring and stenosis of the Mitral and aortic valves
-old sites of inflammation of the myocardiium
scarring of the percarditits

23

Tetrology of Fallot

the inability of blood to flow to the lungs to receive oxygen that results in the flow of unoxygenated blood throughout the body

right ventricle hypertrophy- swelling up of ventricle due to heart working harder than normal
over-riding aorta- aorta lies between two ventricles, right sided unoxygenated blood flows directly into the aorta instead of the pulmonary vein
VSD- larger
stenosis of pulmonary tract or pulmonary vein

24

Vasculitis

inflammation of the blood vessels of the heart
-Changes in the walls of blood vessels including thickening weakening, narrowing and scarring these restrict blood resulting in organ and tissue damage

25

Polyarteritis nodosa

who is affected more?
Where is inflammation?

• Small and medium sized arteries become swollen and damaged
• Serious blood disorder
• Type of vasculitis
• More adults than children
• Inflammation throughout the whole arterial wall

26

Polyarteritis nodosa

• Small and medium sized arteries become swollen and damaged
• Serious blood disorder
• Type of vasculitis
• More adults than children
• Inflammation throughout the whole arterial wall

27

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease ( know each type throroughly

lasting longer than three months
chronic cough with mucus production
Air passage patency
Increased resistance
Acute
-Asthma
Chronic
-chronic bronchitis
-Emphysema

28

Aneurysm

An aneurysm is an abnormal widening or ballooning of a portion of an artery due to weakness in the wall of the blood vessel.

29

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease ( know each type throroughly

Air passage patency
Increased resistance
Acute
-Asthma
Chronic
-chronic bronchitis
-Emphysema

30

Restrictive Lung Disease

Ability of lung to expand
-decreased total lung capacity

31

Cystic fibrosis

-bronchial infections
-pancreas destruction
-thick mucous

32

Valvular diseases

stenotic (cant open all the way up)
Incompetent (cant close all the way)

33

Alpaha- 1 antitrypsin defeciency

-emphysema
-cirhossis
-cant neutralize activated proteases

34

Emphysema

Large airspace trapped in dilated alveoli causes compression of smaller airways
Also hyperinflation
-pink puffer
-barrel chest
-trapped air
-rapid respirations
-pursed lips

35

Asthma

What are the triggers

Bronchoconstriction
Type 1 hypersensitivity
IGE
Sensitization of CD4 cells Th2 cells release cytokines

36

Bronchiestasis

Dialated and inflamed bronchi
repeat infections
lots of mucous
foul smelling breath
unbelievable broductive morniing cough

37

Hyaline membrane formation

Initiation of inflammatory response
Neutrophils play a significant role
Oxidant injury
leakage of protein

38

chronic restrictive lung disease


-Occupational
-Chemotherapy
-Immunological

Occupational
-Asbestos
-Silicosis
Coal miners lung

Chemotherapy
-Busulfan

Immunological
-Rheumatoid arthritis
-sarcoid
-Scleroderma and other collagen vascular diseases

39

Vascular related pulmonary disease

syymptoms?

Acute alterations in blood flow
-Congestion and edema
-Pulmonary embolism
Chronic congestion
-Eisenmingers reaction

40

Pneumonia

Infection of the alveolar spaces
-bacteria
-TB
Interestitial tissue
-Virus
Mycoplasma

41

Pleural tumors

Metastatic
-about anywhere
Primary, Mesothelioma
-mesothelial cells
-Abestos workers
-Slow growing
-Traps and invades lungs

42

Upper airway

-Allergic diseases
-Sinusitis
-Larynx
Infections
Polyps
Squamous cancer

43

Histoplasmosis

Symptoms

Breathing spores of diamorphic yeast and fungal growth often found in bird and bat droppings is a pulmonary infection

Chest pain.
Chills.
Cough.
Fever
shortness of breath

44

Fungal Pnemonias

What disease is common in this?

2 things?

Typically means something is wrong with the immune system Histoplasmosis is commom
-inhalation of spores
-Inhalation of Conidia
-reactivation of latent infections

45

Pulmonary Abscess

Aspiration of?
Hole with?

-Staphyloccoccus
-Aspiration of gastric material
-Hole with air fluid

46

Hyaline membrane formation

injury?
proteins?

Initiation of inflammatory response
Neutrophils play a significant role
Oxidant injury
leakage of protein

47

chronic restrictive lung disease


-Occupational
-Chemotherapy
-Immunological

Occupational
-Asbestos-6 naturally occuring silicate minerals
-Silicosis- respiratory disease breathing and inhaling silica dust
Coal miners lung

Chemotherapy
-Busulfan

Immunological
-Rheumatoid arthritis
-sarcoid
-Scleroderma and other collagen vascular diseases

48

Vascular related pulmonary disease

What is it?

three main symptoms

Acute alterations in blood flow from heart to lungs
-Congestion and edema
-Pulmonary embolism
Chronic congestion
-Eisenmingers reaction

49

Histoplasmosis

symptoms

Breathing spores of diamorphic yeast and fungal growth often found in bird and bat droppings is a pulmonary infection

Chest pain
chills
cough
fever

50

Premature (Extra) Beats Arrythmias

Premature beats are the most common type of arrhythmia. They're harmless most of the time and often don't cause any symptoms.

When symptoms do occur, they usually feel like fluttering in the chest or a feeling of a skipped heartbeat.

51

Superventricular arrythmias

Supraventricular arrhythmias are tachycardias (fast heart rates) that start in the atria or atrioventricular (AV) node. The AV node is a group of cells located between the atria and the ventricles.

52

Ventricular arrythmias

These arrhythmias start in the heart's lower chambers, the ventricles. They can be very dangerous and usually require medical care right away.

Ventricular arrhythmias include ventricular tachycardia (fast, regular beating of the ventricles that may last for only a few seconds or for much longer and ventricular fibrillation (electrical cells make ventricles quiver instead of pump normally) (v-fib). Coronary heart disease, heart attack, a weakened heart muscle, and other problems can cause ventricular arrhythmias.

53

Bradyarrythmias

What happens?

Bradyarrhythmias occur if the heart rate is slower than normal. If the heart rate is too slow, not enough blood reaches the brain. This can cause you to pass out.

In adults, a heart rate slower than 60 beats per minute is considered a bradyarrhythmia.

can be caused by underactive thyroid, medictions, blood imbalances

54

apnea

suspension of external breathing, you cant breath and blocked airways

55

orthopnea

discomfort of breathing that is relieved when patient is sitting up or standing

56

dyspnea

shortness of breath due to airway obstruction of the lungs and heart

57

How to detect DVT

Physical - check legs for signs, also check blood pressure, heart and lungs

Diagnostic test- Ultrasound, A D-dinner test, venography

Magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography less common

58

cyanosis

blue or purple affect due to low oxygen

59

Diaphoresis

Excessive perspiration and secretion of sweat

60

hypercalcemia

To much calcium in the blood

61

hypocalcemia

not enough calcium in the blood

62

hyperkalemia

high potassium blood levels

63

hypokalemia

low potassium blood levels

64

ecchymosis

Nonraised skin discoloration caused by the escape of blood into the tissues from ruptured blood vessels.

65

skin is the first line of defense against what?

bacteria and viruses

66

skin protects underlying structures from?

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and dehydration

67

What happens if temperature regulation is to hot?
two things?

-Dermal blood vessels dialate
-Vessels carry more blood to surface so heat can escape

68

What happens if temperature regulation is to cold?
two things?

-Blood vessels constrict
-prevents heat from escaping

69

what is skin excretion?

-small amounts of waste products are lost through perspiration

70

What two skin layers make up the epidermis

Stratum corneum, and stratum basale

71

What is the stratum corneum?

-most superficial layer of the epidermis
-mostly dead cells from a impearable layer

72

Stratum basale?

-deepest layer
-cells constantly dividing and pushing older cells outward

73

Keratinocyte?

-durable proteins that make the epidermis waterproof and resistant to pathogens

74

Melanocyte?

-Traps UV radiation and prevents damage to underlying layers of the skin

75

Dermis deeper of the two skin layers, contains what major tissue types?

List 5

-Sudoriferous (sweat) glands
-Sebacceous (oil) glands
-Hair follicles and arrector pilli muscles
-collagen, elastic and nerve fibers
-Blood vessels

-

76

Hypodermis

composed of two things?
functions two things?

Composed of
-Adipose (fat) and loose connective tissue
-Blood vessels and nerves
Functions
-Storage in adipose tissue
-cushions and insulates underlying structures

77

blood is well oxygenated skin is what color

pink

78

If oxygen level in the blood is low the skin will be what colr

skin will be pale or have bluish color (cyanosis)

79

What is hemoglobin?

a pigment in the red blood cells

80

What is a skin lesion?
What is it?
Example?

Any variation in the skin
-a simple freckle
-a serious tumor
-bump
etc

81

Fissure

crack in the skin surface

82

Keloid

An overgrowth of scar tissue

83

Macule

A flat skin discoloration such as freckle or flat mole

84

Nodule

A large pimple or small node

85

Papule

An elevated mass similar to but smaller than a nodule

86

Petechiae

Pinpoint skin hemorrhages that result from bleeding disorders

87

plaque

small, flat, scaly area of skin

88

Purpura

Purple red bruises usually due to clotting abnormality

89

scale

Thin plaques of epithelial tissue on skin surface

90

Pustule

An elevated( infected) lesion containing pus

91

Tumor

A swelling of abnormal tissue growth

92

Alopecia

(baldness) occurs when hair follicles die

93

Arector pilli can cause

goose bumps

94

Sebaceous glands produce
They prevent?

Sebum to keep hair soft
they prevent bacteria from growing on the skin

95

Sudoriferus sweat glands
Eccrine and Apocrine functions

-Eccrine- produce watery type of sweat activated by heat
Apoxcrine- Produce a thicker type of sweat with more proteins
-armpit groin areas
-activated by nervousness or stress

96

In skin healing, injury and inflammation you have

swelling, redness, and pain

97

scabies

contagious skin condition caused by mites

98

Warts

harmless growth (infection) caused by a virus

99

Rosacea

Dilation of small facial blood vessels

100

Ring worm
tinea corpis
tinea capitis
tinea pedis

tinea corpis- skin infection caused by fungi
tinea capitis- fungal infection of the scalp
tinea pedis-athletes foot infection of the feet caused by fungus

101

what is herpes zoster?

shingles

102

what is pediculosis

head lice
body lice
pubic lice

103

Impetigo

Ozing skin lesions that eventually crust over

104

Eczema

chronic dermatitis - chronic inflammation of the skin

105

Folliculitis

Inflammation of the hair follicles

106

skin cancer abcd rule

assymetry- mole should not become assymetrical
border-should not become irregular
color-should not change or become mixture of colors
diameter-should not grow larger than the diameter of a pencil eraser

107

skin and aging
At least 4 things that happen

-skin loses its firmness due to loss of elastic and collagen fibers in the dermis
-decrease in melanocytes
-decrease tolerance to temperature changes
-loss in adipose tissue decrease circulation
-

108

Basal cell carcinoma
what is it?
Symptoms?
Treatment?

progresses slowly and rarely spreads to other body parts
new growth, or sore that will not heal
waxy, smooth, red pale flat or lumpy
treatment
Curettage, and electrodessication
Moh's surgery
Cryosurgery
Laser therapy

109

squamous cell carcinoma

more likely to spread to surrounding tissues signs symtoms and tratment are the same as basal

110

Malignant melanoma

more aggressive and occurs anywhere
forms melanocytes
appears on the trunk, head, and neck of men and appear on the arms and legs of women
-chemotherapy, radiation therapy

111

Pleura

membranes surrounding lungs and lining chest cavity Inflammation, pleuritis

112

Bronchiogenic carcinoma


what type?
leads to?

-squamous in most cases
-chronic irritant leads to squamous metaplasia
-continued exposure leads to dysplasia and eventually cancer

113

CMV pneumonia

who does it occur in?
what happens to immune system

common virus
infant and neonate
immune suppressed

114

skin test

PPD
Injected intradermally
Read in two days
measure swelling

115

Granulomas of TB

caseous granulomas
giant cells
inert bug

116

pneumocystis carinii

is an opportunistic infection that occurs in immunosuppressed populations, primarily patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection

117

gram negative bugs

-from body flora
oppurtunistic infections
-aspiration
-alcoholic
-