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Flashcards in Patho Final Exam Deck (117)
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1

Atherosclerosis

narrowing and hardening of arteries due to plaque build up

2

High blood pressure

diastolic-inability to fill ventricle
constriction or trapping of ventricle
hear is relaxed

systolic-lack of pumping strength of ventricle
back up of blood behind weakened ventricle
Atherosclerosis leading to chronic ischemia
heart is contracted

3

High blood pressure

diastolic-inability to fill ventricle
constriction or trapping of ventricle

systolic-lack of pumping strength of ventricle
back up of blood behind weakened ventricle
Atherosclerosis leading to chronic ischemia

4

Thrombophlebitis/deep vein thrombosis

blood clot or platelet that form in deep veins of the body usually in the legs or lower extremity

5

Angia pectoris

chest pain or chest discomfort seen in ischemic heart disease is related to having a heart attack occurs because lack of blood suppy to the heart
• Pain in neck , jaw, shoulder or chest
• Times of physical and emotional stress

6

Aortic Dissection

tearing or seperation of aortic walls which allow blood to get through to the aorta

7

Lymphedema

abnormal accumalation of high protein fluid forming just beneath the skin due to damage to lymph vessels or removal of the lymph nodes

8

shock

-low blood perfusion
-low blood pressure

cardiogenic-heart failure
hypovelimic- blood loss
septic-infection of the blood
anaphalctic shock-hypersensitivity reaction

9

Acute respiratory distress syndrome

what is it?

symptoms?

•Endothelial injury loss of fluids and proteins
Acute lung inflammation and diffuse alveolar capillary
• Sepsis and multiple trauma two common predisposed . Also pneumonia, near drowning , burns
• Characterized by severe hypoxemia

10

Multi-organ dysfunction syndrome

occurs during?

caused by?

• Failure of 2 or more systems due to injury or illness
• Leads to organ death, occurs during sepsis
• Caused by ischemia or impaired perfusion to organ from episode of shock or trauma

11

Disseminated Intravascular coagulation

why does this hapen

• Proteins that control blood clotting become overactive in blood vessels
• Not an illness, a complication
• Creates blood clots in many organs
• Normal clotting is disrupted as severe bleeding can occur

12

syncope

Occurs when?

• Loss of consciousness and posture
• Related to temporary insufficient blood flow to the brain
• When BP is too low and heart doesn't pump oxygenated blood to brain

13

end stage renal disease

who is more commonly affected?

Symptoms?

As common as what?

•Final stage of kidney disease, kidneys are no longer functioning well enough to meet needs of daily life
•On dialysis
•Diabetics with high BP are more likely to be effected
•Decrease in urine output, inability to urinate, changes in skin color, excessive theist
•As common as heart attack
•Not in the end stage until your kidneys stopped working

14

Ascites

What is it?

What causes it?

Symptoms?

• Accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity most common cause of acid tights is advanced liver diseases or cirrhosis
• Occurs when the liver spots working
• Loss of appetite and shortness of breath
• Caused by liver scarring this increase pressure inside the liver is blood vessels

15

Temporal Arteritis

lack of blood supply to the head caused by narrowing or hardening of the arteries
-excessive sweating
-vision loss
-throbbing headache
-fatigue and weakness

16

Congestive Heart Failure Right vs. Left



Characteristics or symptoms

-left side stops working first followed by right side
-increased swelling in the abdomen
-left side pushes oxygenated blood and right side manages deoxygenated blood
-once failure gets to the right side you see severe pitting and edma
SYMPTOMS
-Diminished of pumping ability of left ventricle
-Back up of blood in the pulmonary vasculature
-Pulmonary edema-accumulation of fluid in air sacs of the lungs causing shortness of breath
-Peripheral edema-tissue swelling ususally in the lower limbs
lower legs sweating, perfus fluid loss

17

Arteriosclerosis

thickening and hardening of the arteries or blood vessels that affect blood flow

18

Congestive Heart Failure Right vs. Left



Characteristics or symptoms

-left side stops working first followed by right side
-increased swelling in the abdomen
-left side pushes oxygenated blood and right side manages deoxygenated blood
-once failure gets to the right side you see severe pitting and edma
SYMPTOMS
-Diminished of pumping ability of left ventricle
-Back up of blood in the pulmonary vasculature
-Pulmonary edema
-Peripheral edema

19

Myocardial Infarction

Heart attack

Cardiogenic heart failure
-loss of pumping strength
Arrythmias
-Irritable electrical conduction
Vascular dysfunction
-Involvement of papillary muscles
Rupture and tamponade

20

Arrythymias ( know each type and the prognosis ie. Ventricular tachycardia)

Abnormal heart rhythm or heart beat that can lead to death depending on severity of disease seen in myocarditis, myocardial infarction, and Ischemic heart disease

21

Cor pulmonale

Enlargement and failure of the right ventricle due to increased vascular resistance or high blood pressure in lungs
• Silent illness that leads to heart disease

22

Rheumatic Heart Disease

Scarring and stenosis of the Mitral and aortic valves
-old sites of inflammation of the myocardiium
scarring of the percarditits

23

Tetrology of Fallot

the inability of blood to flow to the lungs to receive oxygen that results in the flow of unoxygenated blood throughout the body

right ventricle hypertrophy- swelling up of ventricle due to heart working harder than normal
over-riding aorta- aorta lies between two ventricles, right sided unoxygenated blood flows directly into the aorta instead of the pulmonary vein
VSD- larger
stenosis of pulmonary tract or pulmonary vein

24

Vasculitis

inflammation of the blood vessels of the heart
-Changes in the walls of blood vessels including thickening weakening, narrowing and scarring these restrict blood resulting in organ and tissue damage

25

Polyarteritis nodosa

who is affected more?
Where is inflammation?

• Small and medium sized arteries become swollen and damaged
• Serious blood disorder
• Type of vasculitis
• More adults than children
• Inflammation throughout the whole arterial wall

26

Polyarteritis nodosa

• Small and medium sized arteries become swollen and damaged
• Serious blood disorder
• Type of vasculitis
• More adults than children
• Inflammation throughout the whole arterial wall

27

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease ( know each type throroughly

lasting longer than three months
chronic cough with mucus production
Air passage patency
Increased resistance
Acute
-Asthma
Chronic
-chronic bronchitis
-Emphysema

28

Aneurysm

An aneurysm is an abnormal widening or ballooning of a portion of an artery due to weakness in the wall of the blood vessel.

29

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease ( know each type throroughly

Air passage patency
Increased resistance
Acute
-Asthma
Chronic
-chronic bronchitis
-Emphysema

30

Restrictive Lung Disease

Ability of lung to expand
-decreased total lung capacity