Flashcards in People (HR) Deck (27)
What is a contractor?
A contractor is a person/business that an organisation hires to provide goods/services that it cannot provide for itself. This may be less expensive the organisation as contractors are temporary and therefor do not require holiday pay, pension etc.
Name the stages of recruitment.
1. Identify a job vacancy
2. Carry out a job analysis
3. Prepare a job description
4. Prepare a person specification
5. Advertise the job vacancy
State 3 advantages of internal recruitment.
- Applicants are familiar with the organisation therefor do not need training, this saves costs, increasing profit
- Vacancies can be filled quickly by already existing employees
- Employees may feel more motivated if they are promoted
State 3 disadvantages of internal recruitment.
- Already existing employees will not bring any new ideas to the organisation
- When a job is filled another vacancy is created
- Staff may become competitive to get the job and feel demotivated if they do not get it
- There may not be staff available to fill the vacancy
State 3 advantages of external recruitment.
- A wide range of people can apply for the job, giving the organisation more choice
- New employees may bring new ideas to the organisation which can improve productivity
- Recruitment agencies can be used to fill vacancies quickly
State 3 disadvantages of external recruitment.
- It may be time consuming reviewing applicants as more people can apply
- It can be more expensive to advertise vacancies externally
- It is easier to choose the wrong person for the job as the organisation is unfamiliar with applicants
What methods could an organisation use to ensure it selects the right applicant for a job?
- Application forms
- Assessment centres
- Probationary periods
What is a successive interview?
A successive interview is when an applicant is interviewed separately by more than one interviewer
What is a panel interview?
A panel interview is when a number of interviewers interview one applicant
Describe a psychometric test.
A psychometric test is when the applicant is asked questions in order to find out what type of person they are. This allows the organisation to anticipate how the applicant will act under certain circumstances
Describe an aptitude test.
An aptitude test involves assessing an applicants ability to use certain skills required for the job
Describe an attainment test.
An attainment test involves testing an applicant in a specific area or skill
What is an assessment centre?
An assessment centre is a location where a large number of applicants undertake different situations or work related scenarios in order to tell whether they are right for a job or not
What is workforce planning?
Workforce planning involves preparing for future employee requirements i.e. Ensuring there will be the correct amount of staff and skills to complete future tasks. The organisation will monitor the labour market in order to predict changes in employment patterns.
Describe 2 advantages and 2 disadvantages of on the job training.
- The organisation benefits as work is getting done as employees are being trained, increasing productivity
- Employees become familiar with the staff and tasks they will be required to do in the workplace
- The organisation suffers from any mistakes made by trainees
- The trainee must learn as they do the job which may take a long time
Describe 2 advantages and 2 disadvantages of off the job training.
- Employees are often taught by specialists
- Employees may feel more confident as they start the job equipped with all the necessary skills
- No work gets done whilst the employee is training
- It can be expensive to carry out off the job training
What is appraisal?
Appraisal is when a manager carries out an evaluation of employees individual performance in their job.
Justify the use of a virtual learning environment.
- More eco friendly as no paper is used and need to travel is eliminated, reducing carbon emissions
- Cheap as there is no travel cost
- Courses can be easily updated and altered
- Training can be done anywhere at any time
Describe 3 motivational theories.
- Maslow's hierarchy of needs states that there are five levels of needs that must be met for a person to be motivated. Each level must be satisfied before the person can progress to the next level, if the person is not satisfied at one level they cannot progress to the next.
- Adam's equity theory states that for a person to be motivated and satisfied, their input (work) must match their output (reward). If inputs and outputs are not balanced the person will become demotivated.
- McGregor's X and Y theory states that there are two different types of manager. Theory X manager is pessimistic, believes employees are lazy, have no ambition and as a result are not given any responsibility. Theory Y manager is optimistic, believes employees will be motivated if they are given a sense of achievement, provides opportunities for employees and delegates responsibility.
- Herzberg's two factor theory states that there are two factors that motivate employees: hygiene factors and motivator factors. If both factors are satisfied employees will be motivated
What are the 5 levels in maslows hierarchy?
1. Physiological needs - food, water, shelter, breathing, clothing, sleep
2. Safety and security - health, employment, property, family, social stability
3. Love and belonging - friendship, family, intimacy, sense of connection
4. Self esteem - confidence, achievement, respect of others, the need to be unique
5. Self actualisation - morality, creativity, spontaneity, acceptance, experience, purpose, meaning, inner potential
How could an organisation motivate employees?
- Provide fair pay
- Use permanent contracts instead of temporary ones
- Provide development opportunities
- Offer incentives
- Use an open door policy
Name and describe the three leadership styles.
Autocratic - The leader has full control and employees have no input in decision making. There is limited communications and as a result staff are stressed and demotivated. Decisions are made very quickly.
Democratic - The leader includes employees in decision making. Topics are discussed before decisions are made. Employees feel motivated but decision making can be very time consuming.
Laissez fair - Leaders have little involvement with projects, employees have few limitations bar the set time frame to complete tasks. Leaders are involved in motivating and answering questions. Employees may feel stressed or motivated due to the increased responsibility and freedom.
What is a trade union?
A trade union is an organisation that represents workers conditions, pay, dismissal and redundancy.
Name and describe an act of legislation.
Health & Safety Act (1974) - States that both employers and employees have responsibility to ensure a safe working environment. They must take care of their own health and safety and that of others.
Equality Act (2010) - States that there is no toleration of discriminatory behaviour in the work place relating to race, age, disability, gender, marriage/partnership, religion, sex or sexual orientation. There is special protection in place for pregnant women.
Employment Rights Act (1996) - States that employers must ensure: employees have an employment contract within 2 months of starting a job, employees must have a payslip to show how wages are calculated, employees have rights to terminate their employment and take maternity leave.
National Minimum Wage Act (1998) - States that every worker in the UK must receive a basic hourly rate of pay. Under 18's must receive at least £3.79 an hour, workers between 18-20 must receive at least £5.03 an hour and workers aged 21 and over must receive at least £6.31 an hour.
Employment Act (2008) - States that in the case of grievance and discipline employees must be paid if they do not follow regular procedures. Also states that any under paid employees can legally receive help from the Inland Revenue or start a tribunal.
What are advantages of good employee relations?
- Reduced staff turnover
- Absences are reduced
- Employees are more motivated
- Employees will adapt to change more easily
Compare on the job and off the job training.
- On the job training involves training employees within the work place whereas with off the job training employees are trained at a training facility
- On the job training benefits the organisation as work gets done as employees are trained whereas there is less productivity with off the job as employees are in a training facility
- With on the job training employees are trained by colleagues whereas with off the job training employees are trained by professionals
- With on the job training employees feel more confident as they become familiar with procedures and colleagues whereas with off the job training employees do not become familiar with colleagues until after training