Pericardial and Myocardial Diseases Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pericardial and Myocardial Diseases Deck (18):
1

indications for endomyocardial biopsy

grading of rejection in cardiac recipients

grading of anthracycline cardiotoxicity

diagnosis of myocarditis

confirmation of primary cariomyopathy

diagnosis of specific heart muscle disease

restrictive versus constrictive heart disease

2

microscopic features of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

myocyte hypertrophy

myofiber disarray

patchy interstitial fibrosis

endocardial fibrosis

thickened intramural coronary branches

3

most common mutations in familial HCM

beta-myosin heavy chain

cardiac myosin-binding protein

troponin T

**autosomal dominant in 50% of mutations

4

possible causes of hemopericardium

myocardial rupture or dissecting aortic aneurysm

5

major parasitic cause of myocarditis

trypanosoma cruzi

Chaga's disease

chronic disease is characterized by heart failure, cardiac dilatation, and dilatation of the esophagus and gut

6

athlete's heart due to isotonic (dynamic) exercise

running, cycling, swimming

increases venous return and ventricular ED diameter

increased SV and CO

LV thickens and myocardium hypertrophies eccentrically

mass-to-volume ratio is unchanged

7

athlete's heart due to isometric (static) exercise

weight lifting, shotputting

brief increases in pressure

hypertrophies in a concentric method

mass-to-volume ratio increases

8

most common cause of sudden cardiac death in young athletes

hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

idiopathic left ventricular hypertrophy

congenital coronary artert anomalies

9

causes of secondary cariomyopathies

toxic

metabolic

storage

infiltratice

neuromuscular

10

microscopic features of dilated cardiomyopathy

myocyte hypertrophy

myocyte attenuation (stretching)

sarcoplasmic degeneration

interstitial fibrosis

endocardial fibrosis

lymphocytic myocarditis

11

microscopic features of restrictive cardiomyopathy

eosinophilic endomyocarditis

endocardial fibrosis

patchy or diffuse interstitial fibrosis

myocyte hypertrophy

12

tumors of the heart

rare occurrence, most common is cardiac myxoma, involving the left atrium or the mitral valve

leads to impariment of ventricular filling

arise from endothelial cells

benign and treatable surgically

primary tumors of the heart:

lymphomas

paipllary fibroelastomas

rhabdomyomas

angiosarcomas

rhabdomyosarcomas

13

cardiac amyloidosis

interstitial deposition of eosinophilic material

agranulation of myocytes

can present with a restrictive pattern

14

sarcoidosis

a systemic granulomatous disease of undetermined etiology

involving lymp nodes, lung, liver, spleen, eyes, phalangeal bones, and parotid glands

15

common causes of acute pericarditis

T = trauma, tumor

U = uremia

M = myocardial infarction and medications

O = other infections

R = rheumatoid, autoimmune disorder, radiation

16

Dressler's Syndrome

fever, pericarditis, pleuritis, low grade fever, pericardial friction rub

treat with high-dose aspirin

17

effect of volume and timing of fluid accumulation on intrapericardial pressure

In a rapidly developing effusion, the pressure increases dramatically

In a slowly developing effusion, the same volume produces less pressure

18

effect of volume and timing of fluid accumulation on cardiac function

Once the interpericardial pressure gets up to 10-15 mmHg, the pulse pressure goes way down

Can't raise central venous pressure over 15 mmHg

When the intrapericardial pressure approaches 15mmHg, can't get return to the heart

Result is cardiac tamponade