Hypertension Flashcards Preview

Cardiovascular > Hypertension > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hypertension Deck (22):
1

What are the parameters for prehypertension?

120-139 systolic

or

80-89 diastolic

2

What are the parameters for stage I hypertension?

140-159 systolic

or

90-99 diastolic

*** 150 or greater for people >= 60 years old

3

What are the parameters for stage II hypertension?

>= 160 systolic

or

>= 100 diastolic

4

What physiological properties does blood pressure measure?

cardiac output, intravascular volume, peripheral vascular resistance

5

effects of the renin-angiotension system

hypertension/hypovolemia -> decreased blood flow -> decreased afferent arteriole stretch -> renin release

decreased delivery of renal blood flow to macula densa

sympathetic stimulation

6

anatomy of the juxtaglomerular apparatus

cells in the wall of the afferent arteriole secrete reinin into the lumen of the arteriole as well as the renal lymph in response to its stretch receptors

7

effects of angiotensin II

sympathetic activation

smooth muscle vasoconstriction

decreased bradykinin

Na/H2O reduction via aldosterone

8

aldosterone

produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex

acts in the distal nephrone to cause Na+ absorption and K+ and H+ excretion

9

renal sympathetic nerve activity

increases renal vascular resistance

increases sodium reabsorption

promotes renin release (JGA)

10

ADH

antidiuretic hormone - arginine vasopressin

stimulates mainly water, some sodium resorption

current antagonists have minimal anti-hypertensive effect (used to treat hyponatrimia)

11

ANP

atrial natriuretic peptide

promotes sodium excretion, increases GFR and blod flow to the kidney, decreases renin release

ANP analogues have not been effective for hypertension treatment

12

renal effects of increased sympathetic tone

increased renin secretion

increased angiotensin II

increased aldosterone

increased sodium reabsorption

increased EABV/ECV

incresaed cardiac output

13

alpha1 receptor effects

vasoconstriction

14

alpha2 receptor effects

inhibits cAMP

decreases norepi release

15

primary hypertension

high blood pressure due to genetic and environmental factors

also called essential hypertension

caused by genetic and environmental factors that have not been completely elucidated

accounts for 95% of chronic hypertension

16

secondary hypertension

hypertension caused by a specific pathophysiologic process

accoutns for less than 5% of all hypertension

17

primary causes of secondary hypertension

renal artery stenosis

hyper aldosteronism

hyperthyroidism

pheochromocytoma

medications that can riase blood pressure

18

masked hypertension

an individual has normal blood pressure in the clinic but an elevate blood pressure at home

19

main mechanisms by which blood pressure is maintained

volume regulation

vascular tone

cardiac output

20

signs of hyperaldosteronism

low renin

high aldosteron

21

11-beta-HSD-type 2

converts cortisol to cortisone

inhibited by licorisce (glycryyhetinic acid)

 

22

Liddle's Syndrome

rare dises - causes low renin and low aldosterone