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Flashcards in Cardiovascular Development Deck (24):
1

embryonic vascular systems

umbilical arteries and veins (placental)

vitelline arteries and veins

intraembryonic circulation with the cardinal system of veins

2

three sequential systems of vein development

cardinal

subcardinal

supracardinal

3

common cardinal veins

anterior cardinal - brachiocephalic vein, superior vena cava

posterior cardinal - pelvic and leg veins

4

subcardinal system

becomes the middle IVC, renal, and gonadal veins

5

supracardinal system

appears last

develops into azygous system and lower IVC

6

vitelline system

forms intrahepatic inferior vena cava

hepatic veins

hepatic portal system

7

components of the embryonic heart tube

endocardial tube

cardiac jelly

myocardial mantle

8

development of the embryonic heart tube

starts out as left and right tubes that quickly fuse

the interior is shaped into a single sequence of chambers - sinus venosus, atrium, ventricle, bulbus cordis, truncus arteriosus

9

partitioning of the heart tube

heart bends to the right in the middle of the ventricle, forming two ventricles in sequence

they are separated by a short and incomplete interventricular septum

blood flow is from the atrium to the left ventricle to the right ventricle

10

dorsal mesocardium

a mesentary that surroudns the embryonic heart

11

transverse pericardial sinus

a passage between the arteries and veins that forms once dorsal mesocardium breaks down

12

endocardial cushions

dorsal and ventral structures that partition the A-V canal into left and right sides

13

development of the IV septum

begins to grow from the floor of the ventricles toward the fused endocardial cushions

14

septum primum

the primary septum that divides the atrium by growing down toward the endocardial cushions

forms the foramen primum

15

septum secundum

forms the foramen secundum, which forms the framen ovale with the foramen primum

16

When does the ventricular division become complete?

when the spiral septum, which partitions into the truncus arteriosus, fuses with the IV septum and the endocardial cushions

17

What happens to the sinus venosus?

becomes the smooth part of the right atrium and the cornoary sinus

18

What happens to the bulbus cordis?

becomes the smooth, outflow part of both ventricles, the conus arteriosus and aortic vestibule

19

ductus arteriosus

a second fetal shunt between the pulmonary and systemic circulations

connects the pulmonary trunk to the aortic arch

there is little pulmonary blood flow until the first breath, when the vascular beds in the lung open with the first breath

becomes the ligamentum arteriosum a few weeks after birth

20

ductus venosus

a fetal liver bypass

21

changes at birth triggered by first breath

blood flows to lungs

left atrial pressure increases and closes the foramen ovale

oxygenated blood in the umbilical arteries causes smooth muscles to contract

umbilical veins collapse from lack of blood

ductus venosus becomes the fibrous ligamentum venosum

increased blood flow in left ventricle increases pressure int he aortic arch, decreasing blood flow through ductus arteriosus, allowing it to become the ligamentum arteriosum

22

Tetralogy of Fallot

faulty spiral septum leading to:

pulmonary stenosis

IV septal defect

overriding aorta

right ventricular hypertrophy

23

persistent truncus arteriosus

Complete communication between ascending aorta and aortic trunk

big time shunting of the blood to the pulmonary trunk

too much blood comes back to the heart

congestive heart failure develops

24

transposition of the great arteries

spiral structure didn't develop

blood flow to the heart is affected

huge interventricular septal defects

need to do surgery for the defect