The Cardiac Cycle Flashcards Preview

Cardiovascular > The Cardiac Cycle > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Cardiac Cycle Deck (40):
1

Draw the WIgger's Diagram for the left atrium, ventricle, and aorta.

2

left atrial a wave

contraction of the atrium (atrial kick) during atrial systole

3

left atrial c wave

valve leaflets are moving back up into the left atrium when the ventricle contracts, leading to a rise in pressure in the atrium

4

left atrial v wave

during ventricular ejection, blood continues to flow into the atria from the systemic and pulmonary veins while the AV valves are closed

this distends the atrial walls and causes a gradual rise in atrial pressure

a sharp fall occurs when the AV valves open at the onset of rapid ventricular filling

5

normal human end diastolic volume

130 mL

6

normal human end systolic volume

60 mL

7

Draw the waveform of the jugular venous pulse.

8

What is the normal stroke volume for a 70kg person?

75 mL

9

What is the normal cardiac output?

5L/min

10

incisura (dicrotic notch)

the result of the elastic recoil of aortic diameter back down from its temporarily expanded diameter caused by ventricular ejection

11

diastasis (quiet period)

the period in late diastole where very little additional blood fills the ventricles

12

jugular a wave

rise in pressure caused by atrial contraction

priminent a wave signifies right ventricular hypertrophy or tricuspid stenosis

13

jugular c wave

rise in pressure caused by right ventricular contraction and movement of tricuspid valve into the right atrium

14

jugular v wave

filling of the right atrium against a closed tricuspid valve

prominent v wave signifies tricuspid regurgitation

15

jugular x descent

fall in atrial pressure that occurs as the ventricle ejects volume into the pulmonary artery

16

jugular y descent

caused by the opening of the tricuspid valve

prominent y descent signifies constrictive pericarditis

17

first heart sound S1

vibration caused by closing of the AV valves, mitral first then tricuspid

best heard at the apex "lub"

18

Where is the mitral valve closing best heard?

to the left of the sternum (4th intercostal space)

19

Where is the closing of the tricuspid valve best heard?

over the sternum

20

second heart sound S2

closure o the aortic and then pulmonary valves

"dub"

21

Where is the aortic component of S2 best heard?

to the left of the sternum at the first intercostal space

22

Where is the pulmonic component of S2 best heard?

to the right if the sternum at the first intercostal space

23

third heart sound S3

when the blood flows passively from the atria into the ventricles, it creates some turbulence, which if excessive, causes S3

this is not normally heard

24

fourth heart sound S4

the additional spurt that can cause some turbulence when the atria contract

this is not normally heard

25

Describe the timing of contraction, valve movements, and heart sounds.

26

cadicac index (liters/min/sq m)

mean at rest: 3.1

range at rest: 2.5-4.0

27

venous pressure (mmHg)

mean at rest: 5

range at rest: 3-8

28

right atrial pressure (mean; mmHg)

mean at rest: 2

range at rest: -2 - +5

29

right ventricular pressure (systolic; mmHg)

mean at rest: 25

range at rest: 18-30

30

right ventricular pressure (end-diastolic; mmHg)

mean at rest: 2

range at rest: -5 - +5

31

pulmonary artery pressure (systolic; mmHg)

mean at rest: 25

range at rest: 18-30

32

pulmonary artery pressure (diastolic; mmHg)

mean at rest: 10

range at rest: 6-12

33

pumonary artery pressure (mean; mmHg)

mean at rest: 15

range at rest: 10-20

34

pulmonary wedge (mean; mmHg)

mean at rest: 6

range at rest: 0-12

35

left atrial pressure (mean; mmHg)

mean at rest: 6

range at rest: 0-12

36

left ventricular pressure (systolic; mmHg)

mean at rest: 120

range at rest: 100-140

37

left ventricular pressure (diastolic; mmHg)

mean at rest: 6 mmHg

range at rest: 0-12

38

brachial artery pressure (mean; mmHg)

mean at rest: 95

range at rest: 85-105

39

right ventricular contraction

free wall shortens

free wall moves towards septum

septum moves towards free wall

40

left ventricular contraction

chamber constricts

chamber shortens