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Flashcards in Perspectives In Sociology Deck (35):
1

The Three Sociological Theoretical Paradigms

Structural Functionalism, Social Conflict, Symbolic Interactionism

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Functionalism

A sociological theory that explains social organization and change in terms of the role performed by different social structures, phenomena and institutions

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Manifest functions

functions of an object or a phenomenon that are obvious or intended

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Latentent functions

functions of an object, or a phenomenon, that are not expected.

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Social Conflict:
Proletariat: working class, wage workers
Bourgeois: capitalist (property owning class)

theory that seeks to explain social organization and change in terms of conflict that is built into social relations.

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Social Conflict:

theory that seeks to explain social organization and change in terms of conflict that is built into social relations.

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Proletariat:

working class, wage workers

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Bourgeois:

capitalist (property owning class)

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Sociology

The scientific study of human social relations groups and societies.

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Social Embeddedness,

the idea that economic, political, and other forms of human behavior are fundamentally shaped by social relations.

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Sociological Imagination

the ability to grasp the relationship between individual lives and the larger social forces that help to shape them.

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Agency –

The ability of individuals and groups to exercise free will and to influence social change.

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Structure –

Patterned social arrangements that have an effect of agency. (anything that keeps you from doing what you want)

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Critical Thinking

The ability to evaluate claims by using reason and evidence. Think about your actions and how they influence others.

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Scientific Inquiry (evidence):

A way of learning about the world that systematically examines logically constructed theories through testable methods.

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Positivists:

Science that is based on facts alone. The idea is to be as systematic and unbiased as possible.
Early proclamation of sociology.

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Macro-level:

theories of the world that are concerned with large-scale patterns and institutions.

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Micro-level:

Theories of the world that are concerned with small group- social relations and interactions.

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Norms:

Acceptable social behaviours and beliefs.

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Collective Consciousness:

The common beliefs and values that bind the society together.

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Symbolic Interactionism:

Individual self and society as a whole are the products of social interactions based on symbols.

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Symbols:

Representations of things that are not immediately present to our senses.
words, gestures, reactions, invitations, exclusions.

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Auguste Comte:

Founded sociology
Societies evolve their understanding of the world
theological → metaphysical → scientific reasoning
Two key pillars of Comte theories…

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Social statics:

the way society is held together.
Study things that keep us together so that we can manipulate it into something we want.

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Social dynamics:

The laws that govern social change.

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Emile Durkheim: the student of Auguste Comte

Established what sociology should study
Focused on social solidarity: what held us together
The higher the economics were, the more capitalist, the more suicide rates.

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Anomie:

a social condition of normlessness that occurs when people lose touch with the shared rules and values that give order and meaning to their lives.

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Karl Marx

Father of conflict perspective with his discussions of class conflict, where one class prospers at the expense of another.

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Class Conflict:

competition between social classes over the distribution of wealth, power, and other valued resources in society.

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Max Weber

Believed that an adequate explanation of the social world takes into account the meaning of what people do and say.
Predicted the world would organize into bureaucracies, creating an iron cage.

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Bureaucracies:

Formal organizations characterized by written rules. hierarchical authority, and aid stagg, intended to promote organizational efficiency

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W.E.B. Du Bois


Introduced the study of race, racism, and racial identity.

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Social Diversity:

The social and cultural mixture of different groups in society and the societal recognition of difference as significant

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Ethnocentrism:

A worldview whereby one judges other cultures by the standards of one's own culture and regards one's own way of life as normal and better than others.

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Globalization

The process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas, and mutual sharing, and other aspects of culture.