Flashcards in Pesticide Formulations Deck (40)
The component of a pesticide that controls the target pest is called the _______, while the nonpesticidal mix contains the ________.
Active ingredients and Inert Ingredients.
Liquid products contain at least one of the following:
A solution, suspension, or emulsion.
How is a solution made?
by dissolving a substance into a liquid. True solutions will not settle out, nor will it need agitation.
Solid products do not dissolve and must be agitated to maintain even distribution in what?
True or False: Pesticide products formulated as suspensions are water-soluble.
False. They are not water-soluble. They form with more dilute suspensions when mixed with water to make a finished spray. Shake well and use the best equipment for agitation.
What is a mixture made by suspending droplets of one liquid in another?
How do you make an emulsion?
by dissolving an active ingredient into an oil-based solvent and then further diluting it with water.
By rule, what appearance do emulsions have?
Milky, with additives that prevent it from settling.
What are emulsifiable concentrates?
Liquid formulations with the active ingredient dissolved in one or more petroleum solvents.
How many pounds of active ingredients per gallon of the formulated product does an emulsifiable concentrate contain?
2 to 8 pounds.
Name two advantages and two disadvantages of emulsifiable concentrates.
Advantages: Easier to handle, transport, and store (one), little agitation, nonabrasive, and won't clog screens or nozzles.
Disadvantages: increases hazard, higher phototoxicity, easily absorbed to skin and animals, deteriorate equipment, corrode, pit, or discolor painting surfaces (one), flammable.
______ are formulations with a water-soluble active ingredient dissolved in one or more liquids.
Solutions. Advantages and disadvantages vary on the solvents used, concentration of active ingredients, and type of equipment.
What are soluble powders?
Dry, powdered formulations containing 25 to 80 percent active ingredient that dissolves readily in water, forming a true solution.
True or False: A disadvantage of soluble powders and that they may be hazardous if handled during mixture due to the dust like consistency.
True. Though they do contain lower phytotoxicity than some liquid formulations and absorb slower in the skin and eyes,
True or False: Wettable powders dissolve in water. (Name the type of liquid pesticide product category)
False. Wettable powders are suspensions.
Given _____ usually contain 4 or more pounds od active ingredients per gallon of formulation, they should be handled with the same care as ECs and solutions.
Flowables. The advantages are that they seldom clog the nozzle and usually do not present an inhalation hazard when mixing.
What are Invert emulsions and what is a large advantage of using them?
Invert emulsions contain water-soluble pesticide dispersed in oil and requires a special emulsifier. Their drift and runoff are minimal compared to others.
Which formulations requires constant agitation to keep it suspended in water? (Name one extra feature)
Water-Dispersible Granules, which are dustless.
Which formulations include a finely ground inert substance such as talc, clay, nut hulls, or volcanic ash?
Dust formulations, which contain a low percentage of active ingredient (0.5 to 10 percent).
Which formulations are ready to use and contain 2 to 15 percent of active ingredient?
Granules and Pellets.
True or False: Dust formulations are mostly used to apply chemicals to the soil, where they control weeds, nematodes, and insects or absorbed by plant roots.
False. Granular pesticides would be used for this, which are mostly used to deliver a systemic pesticide.
What are Bait formulations and how much active ingredient to they contain?
Baits are active ingredients mixed with an edible substance or some attractant and contain less than 5%.
What are some disadvantages of baits?
Might be attractive to children and pets, wildlife and domestic animals may be affected, target pests might find other food more attractive, application costs, and dead pests might pose a smell or sanitation issue.
Which insecticides are now the primary formulation for cockroach control?
Pastes and gels usually applied with a syringe or gun.
What are some advantages and disadvantages of Gels and Pasts?
Advantages: Odorless and vapor-less, low toxicity for humans, lasts long, low exposure risk, hidden placement, and easily placed.
Disadvantage: pesticides can become contaminated, run and drip, stain, and cause unsightly buildup.
What is an advantage of pesticide-fertilizer combination?
They apply nutrients and control pests at the same time.
Which formulations are the most hazardous and what are they restricted to?
Fumigants, which are restricted to soli and closed structures.
What should you base your decision on when choosing from one from several available formulations?
Legal and label use, signal word, applicator safety, environmental safety, pest biology, site characteristics, target (surface area), and equipment.
True or False: Pesticide and pest management are always considerations, but cost concerns should come first.
False. Pesticide and pest management should come first.