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Flashcards in Pharm 1 - Exam 1 Deck (85):
1

What is an non-selective adrenergic agonist used in the treatment of asthma?

Epinephrine
B-2 agonist

2

What form of administration is ineffective for Epinephrine?

oral

3

Name the long-acting beta 2 adrenergic agonist for asthma.

Salmeterol/Serevent

4

Which asthma drug must be used in conjunction with other therapies?

Salmeterol

5

What inhibits Salmeterol?

beta blockers

6

What is the class of drugs Ipratropium/Atrovent is in?

anticholinergics

7

Which asthma medication has the narrowest TI and in which class is it?

Theophylline/Theo-dur
xanthine/methylthanthine bronchodilator
*looks like caffiene

8

If you want to give an inhaled corticosteroid to an asthma patient, what med would you use?

Beclomethasone

9

If you have a patient with COPD or worsening asthma, what corticosteroid would you give?

Prednisone

10

Name a leukotriene inhibitor used in the treatment of chronic asthma. What enzymes does this drug inhibit?

Zafirlukast/Accolate
CYP450

11

What other class of drugs is often added to antitussives used in COPD?

Antihistamines

12

Name two antitussives and their classes given for COPD.

Codeine (narcotic analgesic/cough suppressant)
Dextromethorphan/DM (synthetic derivative of morphine/cough suppressant)

13

What is the MOA and #1 side effect for Diphenhydramine/Benadryl?

Histamine 1 receptor site blockage
sedation

14

Which drug is a non-sedating antihistamine used for allergic rhinitis? Why is it non-sedating?

Loratadine/Claratin
Don't cross BBB

15

T/F. Both Dephenhydramine and Loratadine block the production of histamine.

False. The receptor is just blocked.

16

Which drug would you choose if you wanted a nasal corticosteroid for treating nasal rhinitis?

Beclomethasone/Beconase

17

What is the most addictive OTC drug and its class? Hint: it's used to treat allergic rhinitis.

Phenylephrine/Afrin

18

This drug has the rebound effects of rhinitis medicosum

Phenylephrine/Afrin

19

What is the most effective smoking cessation drug and its MOA?

Varencycline/Chantix
partial agonist of alpha4/beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor sites

20

What is the second most effective smoking cessation drug? What is it's MOA?

Bupriopion SR/Wellbutrin
dopamine-NE reuptake inhibitor (depression med)

21

What drug is based on the Ayurvedic herb Khella?

Cromolyn

22

What stage of HTN is a BP of 160-179/100?

Stage 2

23

What stage of HTN is a BP of 140-159/90s?

Stage 1

24

What Stage of HTN is a BP of >180/>110?

Stage 3/malignant HTN

25

Which HTN med is contraindicated in patients with low GFR and gout patients?

Hydrochlorthiazide/Hydrodiuril

26

Is Hydrochlorthiazide/Hydrodiuril K+ sparing or wasting?

wasting

27

Which two drugs help the K+ wasting of Hydrochlorthiazide/Hydrodiuril?

ACE inhibitors
B-blockers

28

Which class of drugs has the strongest diuretic effect?

loop diuretics

29

Name a loop diuretic. Is it safe to use in patients with renal failure?

Furosemide/Lasix
No, it's not effective for pts with renal failure but it is the drug of choice for those with low GFR or in hypertensive emergencies

30

What are the MC side effects of diuretics?

hypotension
edema

31

Which of the diuretics is most likely to cause hypercalcemia?

Hydrochlorthiazide/Hydrodiuril

32

What is a common dose of K+ given to patients on K+ wasting diuretics?

10mE or 750mg KCl

33

Which diuretic is K+ sparing?

Spironolactone/Aldactone

34

Which diuretic is a direct aldosterone antagonist?

Spironolactone/Aldactone

35

Do not use this diuretic for pts taking K supplements, ACE inhibitors or ARBs OR those with renal insufficiency, uncontrolled DM or osteomyelitis.

Spironolactone/Aldactone

36

This K+ sparing diuretic is a Na+ channel blocker

Triamterene/Dyrenium

37

Where are the highest concentration of Beta 1 and Beta 2 receptors?

B1: heart
B2: lung

38

What is the antidote to b-blockers? MOA?

glucagon
increase cAMP in myocardium, bypasses beta adrenergic 2nd messenger system

39

Which patients should not be given Propanolol/Inderal?

COPD/asthma (it is known to cause bronchospasm)
cardiac conduction abnormalities

40

What class of drugs may result in rebound tachycardia, HTN, stroke of MI if discontinued suddenly?

beta blockers

41

Name 3 Category X drugs

Lisinopril (ACE inhibitor)
Warfarin (anticoagulant)
Lorsartan (angiotensin II receptor blocker)

42

This drug is a cardiac specific beta 1 blocker

atenolol/tenormin

43

This class of drugs is known to cause weakness, fatigue, lethargy, depression, CNS disturbance, sexual dysfunction, bradycardia

beta blockers

44

What three conditions in addition to HTN would lead someone to use a beta blocker as a first line therapy?

migraine
angina
MI soothed by beta blockers previously

45

Which of the alpha blockers blocks alpha 1 receptors?

Prazosin/Minipress

46

What is the MOA of Rauwolfia Alkaloids/Reserpine?

Peripheral adrenergic blockade

47

Name the Ca Channel Blocker

Verapamil/Isopten

48

What drug is most indicated for treating vasospastic angina in addition to HTN?

Verapamil/Isopten

49

What is the risk of using Ca Channel Blockers with beta blockers?

bradycardia

50

What is the drug of choice in treating pts with HTN and DM? What is its class?

Lisinopril/Prinivil (ACE inhibitor)

51

Which drug inhibits the degradation of bradykinins, resulting in a dry irritating cough?

Lisinopril/Prinivil

52

Someone comes in with angioedema. What drug might they be taking?

Lisinopril/Prinivil

53

What class of drugs should Lisinopril never be mixed with?

K+ sparing diuretics. It has a potential for hyperkalemia on its own

54

What is the drug of choice in treating HTN with CHF of DM in conjunction with proteinuria? What is it's class?

Losartan/Cozaar (ARB)

55

What is the MOA for Losrtan/Cozaar (ARB)?

blocks the effects of angiotensin II, decreasing peripheral vasoconstriction.

56

This drug does not block the degredation of bradykinins and therefore produces less of a cough compared to ACE inhibitors

Losartan/Cozaar (ARB)

57

This drug reduces peripheral sympathetic nervous activity by stimulating the presynaptic alpha2 adrenergic receptors in the CNS.

Methyldopa/Aldomet

58

What drug might you use when a pt's HTN does not respond to 2-3 meds concurrently?

Methyldopa/Aldomet

59

In what class of drug is Methyldopa/Aldomet?

Centrally Acting Alpha Agonist

60

Name 2 direct vasodilators and their most notable side effects.

Minoxidil/Loniten (hirsuitism) AKA Rogaine
Hydrakazine/Apresoline (Drug-induced SLE)

61

What drug falls in the category of renin-blocker?

Aliskiren/Tekturna

62

What is the MOA of IV Nitroglycerine and IV Sodium Nitroprusside and when might you use them?

NO = vasodilation of veins and arteries
Emergency anti-HTN

63

A woman comes in with emergent pregnancy-induced HTN, what drug would be used?

IV Labetalol

64

What is the MOA for aspirin?

irreversibly inhibits COX 1 and 2 = decrease platelet agg.

65

Someone comes in with hyperventilation, tinnitis, dizziness, n/v. What is this constellation of symptoms called when associated with aspirin?

Salicylism

66

In what patients is aspirin indicated to reduce MI?

unstable angina
hx of infarction

67

This drug is an ADP receptor antagonist and is known to reduce the risk of thrombotic events

Clopidogrel/Plavix

68

This anti-thrombotic drug is CI in pts with internal bleeding, intracranial hemorrhage, head trauma, or stroke w/i 30 days

Abciximab/Reopro

69

What class of drug is Abciximab/Reopro?

Glycoprotein IIB/IIIA inhibitor

70

These three anti-coagulants inactivate factor X(Xa)

Heparin
Enoxaparin/Lovenox (LMW Heparin)
Rivatoxaban/Xarelto

71

What is the most unique side effect of Enoxaparin?

Heparin induced throbocytopenia (HIT) syndrome
discontinue if platelets drop below 100,000/mm3

72

Protamine sulfate antidotes what drugs?

Heparin, Enoxaparin/Lovenox (LMW Heparin)

73

This anticoagulant affects vitamin K dependent factors

Warfarin/Coumadin

74

This is the only drug that actually lyses clots via the activation of plasmin.

Streptokinase

75

What drug should not be given to pts who have had reent head trauma, GI bleed, surgery or intracranial neoplasm within the last 30 days?

Streptokinase

76

Which drugs should not be prescribed with Silendafil/Viagra?

Nitrates (nitroglycerin and Isosorbide Dinitrate/Isordil)

77

This is a long acting nitrate vasodilator

Isosorbide Dinitrate/Isordil

78

Beta blockers are mainly indicated in what conditions?

HTN
Angina
post-MI
Panic-attacks

79

What is the antidote for Amlodopine/Norvasc (a Ca+ Channel Blocker)?

Calcium gluconate

80

What drug might be used for pain relief in unstable angina?

morphine (opiate receptor agonist)

81

For what is Nalaxone/Narcan an antidote?

Morphine

82

What is the acronym for unstable angina?

M: morphine
O: oxygen
A: aspirin
N: Nitroglycerin

83

What is the antidote for Streptokinase?

Aminocapoic Acid

84

What drug is particularly indicated for HTN and BPH?

Prazosin/minipress

85

Which drug is CI for those with sulfa allergies?

HCTZ