Flashcards in Pharm 2 - Exam 2 Deck (71):
Which two antidepressant drug classes should be considered for those with depression and insomnia?
What is a serious side effect of MAOIs?
This class of antidepressants increases the likelihood of arrhythmias.
(Also TeCAs, though far less common than with TCAs.)
Foods containing this amino acid should be avoided by those taking MAOIs.
Tyramine (require MAO to be broken down)
Name the Tetracyclic/SARI antidepressant.
What is the MOA of Trazodone/Desyrel?
Serotonin (partial) ANTAgonist and re-uptake inhibitor. (SARI)
In what class of drugs is Fluoxetine/Prozac?
Name the SNRI drug.
Which drug is indicated for mild-moderate depression?
This anti-depression drug is also indicated for pain syndromes such as painful peripheral neuropathy and fibromyalgia.
Anti-depression drugs have the potential for increasing the risk of what in people with major depressive disorder?
In what class of anti-depression meds is Bupropion/Wellbutrin/Zyban?
Norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitors (NDRI) and nicotine receptor ANTAgonist
Why should barbiturates not be mixed with alcohol?
Can potentiate sedation and respiratory depression
T/F. Barbiturates and benzodiazepine receptor sites are the same location as GABA sites on the cell membrane of neurons in the CNS.
False. They appear to be adjacent to but NOT the same. The configuration of the GABA receptor site then changes (in response to the stimulation of the adjacent site) and the affinity for GABA of the GABA receptor site increases.
This long-acting barbiturate is the most widely used anticonvulsant worldwide.
Name the short-acting barbiturate.
Name the intermediate-acting barbiturate.
This short-acting benzodiazepine is used for sedation and anxiety prior to procedures. It also has amnestic properties.
What is the MOA for Diazepam/Valium?
Binds to benzodiazepine receptors in the CNS to enhance GABA activity
T/F. Zolpidem/Ambien and Eszopiclone/Lunesta use barbiturate and benzodiazepine receptors to enhance GABA activity.
False. Rather, benzodiazepine-like hypnotics bind to neither barbiturate and benzodiazepine receptors.
In what class of drugs is Ramelteon/Rozerem and how does it work?
Mimics endogenous melatonin by binding to MT1 and MT2 receptor sites
Which drug can reverse the effects of benzodiazepine overdose?
Tardive dyskinesia is a potential side effect for what class of drugs?
What symptoms are seen with neuroleptic malignant syndrome?
Catatonia, fluctuating blood pressure, dysarthria and fever
What is the treatment for neuroleptic malignant syndrome?
dopamine agonist such as Bromocriptine
In addition to anti-psycotic, what is another action of neuroleptic drugs?
What are the major side effects of Chlorpromazine/Thorazine?
What is the class and MOA of both Chorpromazine/Thorazine and Prochlorperazine/Compazine?
D2 receptor ANTAgonist, H1-histmaine receptor ANTagonist and alpha adrenergic receptor ANTagonist
What are the side effects of Prochlorperazine/Compazine?
anti-cholinergic: drowsiness, dry mouth, constipation, urinary hesitancy
What is the class and MOA of Haloperidol/Haldol?
D2 dopaminergic receptor blocker
What is the class and MOA of both Olanzapine/Zyprexa and Clozapine/Clozaril?
Multiple receptor site blockade (D2 and 5HT2)
What is the class and MOA of Respiradone/Risperdal?
This drug is known to cause significant weight gain (ex. 50lbs in a month) hyperglycemia, diabetes, and stroke.
This drug used to treat bipolar and manic episodes has a very narrow therapeutic index.
What are the potential side effects of Lithium carbonate?
Reduced response to ADH >>> DI
Primidone/Mysoline is a pro-drug of what other drug?
Which type of seizure is not an indication of Phenytoin/Dilantin?
What are the main side effects to remember for Phenytoin/Dilantin?
These two drugs are used to treat seizures and neuropathic pain.
Name the drugs in the barbiturate anticonvulsant class.
Which three drugs may cause ginigival hyperplasia?
Name the benzodiazepine anticonvulsants.
Which two anticonvulsants reduce the Na and Ca channel currents across the neuron (MOA)?
What are the main side effects of Ethosuximide/Zerontin ?
What is the MOA of Gabapentin/Neurontin?
potentiates GABA and affects N-type Calcium Channels
Levadopa is a dopamine precursor that is transformed into dopamine by what enzyme?
What are the chief side effects of L-dopa?
nausea, vomiting, anorexia
What two receptor types are stimulated by Levodopa?
Dopamine receptors in the GI
chemotrigger receptor zone (CTZ) in the brain
What kind of drug is combine with Levodopa to prevent it from being prematurely converted into dopamine in the adrenal glands or other peripheral tissues?
peripheral dopa-decarboxylase inhibitor
Name the dopamine precursor with a peripheral dopamine decarboxylase inhibitor.
L-dopa with Carbidopa/Sinemet
Levadopa should never be combined with _____________ because the combination could lead to a hypertensive crisis.
Levodopa should not be given in conjunction with what type of antipsychotic agent?
dopamine blocking aka Atypical and Typical Neuroleptic
t/f. Levodopa may cause a worsening of psychotic symptoms in patients with psychiatric conditions.
Is it dopamine or L-dopa that crosses the BBB?
MOA of L-dopa
increases dopamine levels in the brain, especially the substantia nigra
What type of drug is often used early in the treatment of Parkinson's disease?
Name the dopamine agonist.
What are the indications for Bromocriptine/Parlodel?
prolactin secreting adenomas
MOA of Bromocriptine/Parlodel. Does it cross the BBB?
Mimics dopamine in stimulation of dopamine receptor sites.
Yes, it crosses the BBB
What symptoms of Parkinson's disease are Anticholinergics useful in treating?
Not very useful for bradykinesia and rigidity
Name the anticholinergic drug
This anticholinergic drug may be used to diminish the side effects of antipsychotic drugs.
Benztropine/Congentin is an anticholinergic ____________ (agonist/antagonist)
What is the MOA of Amandatine/Symmetrel?
maybe related to antagonism of NMDA receptors
This drug is anti-Parkinson's and anti-viral
How long are patients typically on Amandatine before they start experiencing diminished response to the drug?
6 months or less
List the Parkinson's drugs in order of most to least effective.
L-dopa > Bromocriptine > Amantadine > anticholinergic
What drugs should be used for focal/partial seizures?
What drug should be used for absence seizures?
These drugs are indicated for tonic-clonic seizures.
Lamotrigine / Lamictal