Flashcards in Pharm 1 - Exam 2 Deck (94):
This class of anti-arrhythmics contain beta blockers.
Class III Anti-arrhythmics affect what channel?
This class of Anti-arrhythmics affects Ca+ channels.
This drug is a Class Ia anti-arrhythmic that affects phase 0 of the cardiac cycle
Describe the presentation of cinchonism (5 things)
1. blurred vision
This drug may induce ventricular tachycardia, called Torsades des Pointes
Name the cardiac specific beta blocker and its class that is indicated for arrythmias.
Class II Anti-arrhythmic
What phase of cardiac AP do Class II and Class IV anti-arrythmics affect? What side effect might they both have?
bradycardia because they slows AV conduction
What is the most common side effect of all anti-arrythmics?
In what class of drugs is Amiodarone/Cordarone?
Class III Anti-arrhythmic
This drug has the potential to produce a blue-grey coloring of the skin due to it's high iodine content.
ami-IOD-arone = iodine
In what anti-arrhythmic class is Verapamil?
Ca+ Channel Blocker
Name three "other" anti-arrhythmics
This is the official drug of choice for the initial treatment of PSVT (paroxysmal superventricular tachycardia)
Adenosine/Adenocard has a duration of action of ___________.
This drug is indicated (for cardiac use) in life threatening bradycardia and hypotension
What is the MOA of Atropine?
Competitive inhibitor of muscarinic ACh receptors
Name 4 extra-cardiac uses of Atropine
2. pre-operative (decreases bronchial & salivary secretions)
3. to treat organophosphate poisoning
4. as a cycloplegic/mydriatic (paralyzes accomodation/dilates pupils)
What does SLUDGE stand for and what does it indicate?
What type of toxicity is described by saying: "Dry as a bone, red as a beet, hot as a hare and mad as a hatter"?
What is the antidote for Atropine?
Digoxin toxicity potential is increased when combine with what other drug class?
K+ wasting drug without K+ supplementation
The long half-life of Digoxin may have what effect on an EKG reading?
Flattening or inversion of the T wave
What 4 systems are affected in Digitalis intoxication?
What is the antidote for Digoxin?
Digoxin immune Fabs
What number should LDL/HDL not exceed?
Total Cholesterol/HDL should not exceed ___
Niacin causes what characteristic side effects?
What lab values should be watched with Niacin/Nicotinic Acid use?
In what patients is Niacin contraindicated?
Poorly controlled DM
Active Liver Dz
What is the safest form of niacin available?
inositol hexaniacinate (IH)
This drug is a Fibric Acid derivative.
This class of drugs inhibit HMG CoA Reductase
Name 2 common side effects and one life-threatening side effect of statins.
Muscle soreness and muscle weakness
Rhabdomyolysis >>>> Acute Renal Failure
When are statins contraindicated?
Pregnancy or lactation
Liver disease or elevated liver enzymes
Heavy alcohol use
In what class of drugs is Atorvastin/Lipitor?
If a patient on a statin comes in with severe muscle pain, what lab would you want to run?
CPK, to assess potential for rhabdomyolysis
In what class of drugs is Chlorestyramine/Questran?
Bile acid sequestrant
This drug's side effects include constipation and fat soluble vitamin malabsorption.
This drug inhibits cholesterol absorption at the level of the brush border.
These two drugs are Category X
Vytorin (Ezetimibe + statin)
These two drugs are Category C in pregnancy
What is Lovasa?
Ridiculous, expensive fish oil. Stupid.
Class I Anti-arrhythmics affect what type of channel?
This class of anti-hyperlipidemics is known to lower TGs and increase HDL.
Gemfibozol/Lopoid is in what class of anti-hyperlipidemics?
This drug may be used for pneumocystis prophylaxis and is effective against MRSA.
Timethorprim + Sulfamethoxazole/Bactrim
What is the worst case scenario skin issue that can result from the use of Sulfa drugs?
Steven Johnson Syndrome (toxic epidermal necrolysis)
3x more likely with Bactrim than with Sulfamethoxazole alone.
Penicillins fall into what class of drugs?
Beta-lactams: affects bacterial cell wall
What is the MOA for beta-lactam drugs?
Binds to PBPs on bacteria and prevents peptidoglycan cross-linage = cytolysis and cell death
What is the MOA for Sulfamethoxazole with Trimethorprim/Bactrim?
Sulfamethoxazole: competitive inhibitor with enzyme that catalyzes PABA
Trimethorprim: interfaces with folic acid
This drug class is associated with the most severe pure drug allergies.
What is commonly added to Penicillin injections to prolong the half-life?
In the drug Amoxicillin with Clavulanate/Augmentin, dose increase refers to which drug and which drug is in the same amount regardless of dose?
Amoxicillin amount increases with increased Augmentin dose.
Clavulanate is in the same amount regardless of dose.
In the drug Amoxicillin with Clavulanate/Augmentin, which component is most likely to cause diarrhea or pseudomembranous colitis because it is a broader spectrum drug?
What generation of Cephalosporins is indicated with the prefix ceph-?
Are first generation Cephalosporins better to treat gram+ or gram- bacteria?
What generation(s) of Cephalosporins is indicated with the prefix cef-?
Are third generation Cephalosporins better to treat gram+ or gram- bacteria?
Erythromycin/Erythromycin and Azithromycin/Zithromax are part of what drug class?
Of the penicillins, which crosses the BBB and which is in all tissues except the CSF?
Penicillin G crosses BBB
Amoxicillin/Amoxil is distributed to all tissues but CSF
Macrolides and Aminoglycosides affect what bacterial organelle?
What is the half-life of Azithromycin/Zithromax?
Name two drugs that fall into the Tetracycline drug class.
What are the 3 MC indications for a Tetracycline antibiotic?
Moderately severe acne
These two drug classes should be avoided in pregnant women and children because they chelate Ca, staining teeth and affecting bone deposition.
This drug may is nephrotoxic and ototoxic (maybe irreversible)?
should only really be used in life-threatening situations
What is the most appropriate drug to treat Chlamydia?
Azithromycin or Doxycycline
What is the most appropriate drug to treat Gonorrhea?
What is the most appropriate drug to treat Syphilis?
Benzathine Pen G or Doxyclines
What would be an appropriate drug to treat Strep Throat?
What is the initial pharmacologic treatment for acute otitis media?
What would be an appropriate drug to treat recurrent sinusitis?
Amoxicillin and clavulanate/Augmentin
What drug should you consider for the treatment of uncomplicated bronchitis in adults?
What is a good drug class to look to in the treatment of pneumonia (covers typical and atypical CAP)?
quniolones may also be considered
What is the drug of choice for treating acute cystitis?
TMP-Sulfa DS (double strength)
What is drug combination is used to treat PID?
Ceftriaxone AND Doxycycline
AND MAYBE Metronidazole
This drug may lead to spontaneous tendon rupture/damage.
What is the MOA of Ciprofloxacin/Ciproxin?
Inhibits DNA replication and transcription, via DNA gyrase
What is the drug of choice for C. diff infection?
This drug is considered a Pro-drug, meaning it is activated once absorbed by gut bacteria
What enzymes does Metronidazole/Flagyl inhibit and why is this important?
if taken with ETOH, may cause Disulfiram-like Reaction: n/v, flushing, tachycardia
What would you use to treat BV or Trich infection?
What class of drugs are specifically NOT recommended in the treatment of STDs and might lead to tendon rupture?
What class of drugs is Ciprofloxacin/Ciproxin?
What antibiotic covers bacteria and protozoa/parazites?
What is the main indication for Macrodantin/Macrobid?
uncomplicated lower UTI
T/F. Vancomycin's poor bioavailability is one of the good things about it?
True. Effectively treats C. diff with low side effects
This may result if a patient is given Vancomycin/Vancocin too quickly via IV.
Red Man Syndroms aka Red Neck Syndrome
This drug may be used for prophylactic therapy against N. meningitidis and also might tinge body fluids orange.
This drug is primarily used to treat traveler's diarrhea.
Rifaximin/Xifaxan (a lot like Rifampicin)
What is the first-line treatment for MRSA?
Clindamycin or Fluoroquinolone
This drug is primarily used to treat impetigo.