Pharm 1 - Exam 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pharm 1 - Exam 3 Deck (78):
1

Which three anti-fungals target ergosterol in the cell membrane of fungi and protozoa?

Clotrimazole/Lotrimin
Nystatin/Mycostatin
Amphotericin B/Amphocil

2

Name two topical anti-fungals that could be used to treat tinea and other superficial skin infections.

Clotrimazole/Lotrimin
Terbinafine/Lamisil

3

What class of drugs often has an -azole ending?

anti-fungals

4

What is the current drug of choice for the treatment of onychomycosis of toenail or fingernail?

Terbinafine/Lamisil

5

What labs should be monitored when using Terbinafine/Lamisil orally?

Liver fx

6

This is the drug of choice for yeast infections, systemic mycoses, cryptococcous, and histoplasmosis.

Fluconazole/Diflucan

7

This drug has side effects that may be improved by pre-medication treatment with NSAIDs, prednisone or benedryl.

Amphotericin B/Amphocil

8

This drug is often reserved for severe systemic fungal infections because of its "shake and bake" side effects.

Amphotericin B/Amphocil AKA Ampho-terrible

9

What is the drug combination used to treat tuberculosis?

RIPE:
Rifampin
Isoniazid (INH)/Nitrazid
Pyrazinamide
Ethambutol/Myambutol

10

Which drug, used to treat tuberculosis, inhibits the synthesis of mycolic acid in the cell wall and is known for causing paresthesias?

INH/Nitrazid

11

This drug, used to treat TB, is known to induce pyridoxine deficiency and therefore B6 must be a part of the protocol.

INH/Nitrazid

12

This drug is used to treat Influenza A and B but must be given within 48 hours of the onset of symptoms?

Oseltamivir/Tamiflu (oral)

13

Which drug is given as an oral inhaler to treat influenza?

Zanamivir/Relenza

14

Which drug is used to treat influenza as well as Parkinson's disease (short-term)?

Amantadine/Symmetrel

15

What influenza drug is known to have bronchospasm as a side effect?

Zanamivir/Relenza

16

What is the MOA for the influenza drugs?

Inhibits neuramidase, which prevents viral budding

17

This drug is used to treat active herpes infection.

Acyclovir/Zovirax

18

This drug is a guanosine analog that is incorporated into the viral DNA - inhibits replication

Acyclovir/Zovirax

19

What are the 4 kinds of HIV drugs?

Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
Protease Inhibitors
Fusion Inhibitors
Integrase Inhibitors

20

What does HAART stand for?

Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

21

What makes up HAART treatment?

A combination of at least 3 HIV drugs

22

Name the reverse transcriptase drug.

Zidovudine (AZT)/Retrovir

23

Name the protease inhibitor drug.

Saquinavir/Invirase

24

This HIV drug is a pyrimidine analog.

Zidovudine (AZT)/Retrovir

25

What is alpha interferons used for?

Hep C

26

What are beta interferons used for?

Relapsing MS

27

What are gamma interferons used for?

Granulomatous disease

28

What is added to pegylated IFN alpha to make it last longer in the body?

polyethylene glycol

29

When treating Hep C, which drug often accompanies pegylated IFN alpha?

Ribavirin

30

Which 4 vaccines are killed virus?

Polio
Rabies
Hep A
Influenza (TIV/injected)

31

What 2 vaccines are recombinant protein?

Hep B
HPV - Gardisil/Cervarix

32

What is the recommended population to receive LAIV/FluMist?

healthy individuals from 2yo-49yo.
Not for pregnant or immunocompromised pts.

33

What HPV serotypes are covered by Gardisil v. Cervarix?

Gardisil: 6, 11, 16, 18
Cervarix: 16, 18

34

T/F. DTAP vaccine contains part of the tetanus organism.

False. It contains a toxoid antigen.

35

In patients with sickle cell anemia, asplenia or nephrotic syndrome, which vaccine is imperative?

pneumovax

36

Which two vaccines are conjugate?

Hib and meningococcal

37

Which vaccine formate is most likely to produce an adequate immune response?

Live attenuated

38

Patients older than sixty start to have a marked decline in titers of what organism.

pneumococcus

39

This stool softener works as an anionic surfactant (helps lubricate stool).

Docusate/Colace

40

This stool softener works as an osmotic agent to draw water into the GI tract.

magnesium hydroxide/milk of magnesia

41

This drug is a stimulant/irritant laxative.

Bisacodyl/Dulcolax

42

This drug is an antidiarrheal that acts as an opioid receptor agonist.

Loperamide/Imodium

43

This class of drugs is generally contraindicated in patients with bacterial or parasitic infections with fever.

antidiarrheal

44

This antiemetic is and H1 blocker

Meclizine/Antivert

45

Metoclopramide/Reglan is a dopamine 2 ________ (agonist/antagonist) and mixed serotonin 3 _________/serotonin 4 _________ and is particularly indicated in diabetic gastroparesis.

antagonist, antagonist, agonist

46

This drug is indicated in sever nausea and is commonly given prior to chemotherapy treatments.

Ondansetron/Zofran

47

What agent will inactivate the emetic effect of Syrup of Ipecac?

Charcoal

48

What is the triple therapy used for PUD/H. pylori infection?

PPI, 20mg BID
amoxicillin, 1g BID
clarithromycin, 500mg BID
7-14 days

49

This drug is a H2 receptor agonist used to treat gastritis, PUD and GERD.

Ranitidine/Zantac

50

What do H2 receptor agonist and proton pump inhibitors put people at risk for?

GI infections d/t lowered stomach acid.
PPIs are most likely to increase incidence

51

This drug is a proton pump inhibitor

Omeprazole/Prilosec

52

This class of drugs works by inhibiting the H+/K+ ATP-ase pump of parietal cells, which reduces acid secretion

Proton pump inhibitors

53

What other kind of medication should be taken away from PPIs?

Thyroid medication

54

What is the difference between OTC and prescription Omeprazole/Prilosec?

OTC is half the dose of the prescription.

55

Of the drugs to treat gastritis, GERD and PUD, which is the most potent?

Omeprazole/Prilosec

56

What is the difference between Omeprazole/Prilosec and Esomeprazole/Nexium?

The molecules are mirror images and the pills are different colors. Otherwise, they are they function exactly the same.

57

What class of drugs might be substituted for the PPI in the triple therapy used to treat H. pylori/PUD?

Bismuth subsalicylate

58

This aminosalicylate is more effective in treating UC as opposed to Crohn's disease.

5-Aminosalicylic Acid (5-ASA)/Mesalamine

59

What is the difference between Aspirin and 5-ASA?

5-ASA is a pro-drug that is converted to acetylsalicylic acid by gut bacteria.

60

Do antibiotics benefit Crohn's or UC patients more?

Crohn's

61

What are the two most commonly used antibiotics for Crohn's disease?

Metronidazole/Flagyl
Cirpofloxacin/Ciprofloxin

62

Name this antibiotic:
Side effect is N/V
Alcohol should be avoided when taking

Metronidazole/Flagyl

63

Name this antibiotic:
Has an affinity for Ca so should be avoided by pregnant/lactating women and children.
Has risk for tendon rupture

Ciprofloxacin/Ciprofloxin

64

This drug is indicated for traveler's diarrhea and hepatic encephalopathy

Rifamixin/Ixifaxin

65

This drug's site of action is in the ileum and ascending colon and is indicated in mild-moderate Crohn's disease.

Budenoside/Entocort

66

These two drugs are immunomodulators indicated in IBD, RA, and other AI diseases that increases a pts risk of infection.

Azithorprine/Immuran
Infliximib/Remicade

67

This drug is an human monoclonal antibody against TNF alpha.

Infliximib/Remicade

68

This drug significantly increases a person's risk of T-cell lymphoma and drug induced lupus

Infliximib/Remicade

69

This drug is an alpha 1 antagonist used in the treatment of BPH.

Tamsulosin/Flomax

70

This drug is a 5-alpha reductase inhibitor that blocks the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone..

Finasteride/Proscar

71

This drug is Category X and pregnant women should not even handle the crushed/broken tablets.

Finasteride/Proscar

72

This drug is typically used for BPH but in lower doses can be used for alopecia.

Finasteride/Proscar

73

Which drug turns urine and tears orange.

Phenaxolpyridine/Pyridium

74

T/F. Phenaxolpyridine/Pyridium has antibiotic action.

False. Only relieves pain and is primarily used short-term (~2 days)

75

What is the CDC recommendation for the treatment of non-multi-drug resistant strains of TB?

Isoniazid (INH)
Rifampin (RIF)
Ethambutol (EMB)
Pyrazinamide (PZA)
For 2 months
Continuation of INH and RIF for 4-7 months

76

What is the CDC recommendation for the treatment of multi-drug resistant strains of TB?

SHREZ MC
Streptomycin, hydrazine, Rifampicin, ethambutol, pyraZinamide, moxifloxacin, cycloserine

77

What drug and dosage would you give for a patient with genital/mucocutaneous HSV?

Acyclovir/Zovirax
initial: 400mg PO TID x 7-10 days
recurrence: 400mg PO TID TID x 5 days

78

What drug and dosage would you give for a patient with Varicella Zoster?

Acyclovir/Zovirax
800mg PO 5x/day x 7 days