Pharm 12.2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pharm 12.2 Deck (56)
1

Echinacea active constituents

chicoric acid, alkamide, polysaccharides

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echinacea used clinically

fress pressed juice, alcoholic root extract

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echinacea effects

immuneomodulator, anti-infalmmatory, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant activity(weak)

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echinacea uses

treat/prophylaxis of flu and cold and upper respiratory tract infections

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echinacea adverse effects

oral use: unpleasant taste, GI upset, IV use: fever, shivering, headace, vomiting

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Garlic (allium sativum) active constituent

organosulfer compound (allicin)

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garlic on HMG CoA reductase

inhibits HMG CoA reductase interfering with cholesterol biosynthesis

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garlic and platelets

anti platelet and fibrinolytic activity

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garlic and atherosclerosis

anti atherosclerotic activity

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garlic and channels

opens potassium channels - vasodialation

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garlic and NO synthesis

garlic stimulates NO synthesis

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garlic and ACE

garlic inhibits ACE

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garlic and endocrine

hypoglycemic effects

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garlic and microbes

antimicrobial so inhibits gm+, Gm- bacteria, fungi, protozoa, viruses

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garlic and cancer

antineoplastic and inhibits procarcinogens

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garlic adverse effects

nausea, hypotension, allergy, bad odor

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garlic drug interaction

with warfarin and asprin --so due to antiplatelet effects garlic should be used cautiously otherwise tendancy to bleed; Saqunavir ---garlic may reduce the bioavailability of this antiviral protease inhibitor

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Ginko (ginko biloba) part used

leaves of ginko tree

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ginko active constituents

flavone glycosides and terpenoids

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ginko CVS effects

inc blood flow, in NO causing vasodialation, antiplatelet

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ginko metabolic effects

antioxidant, free radical scaventer

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ginko CNS

frequently used to treat "cerebral insufficiency" and dementia of Alzheimer type, improves concentration

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ginko adverse effects

nausea, stomach upset, diarrhea, headache, alergy, anxiety, insomnia, bleeding complications

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ginseng (panax ginseng, panax qunquefolium) active principle

many varieties of ginsenosides or panaxosides

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ginseng source

root of the plant

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ginseng pharmacological effects

immune modulation, ergogenic/energizing, nootropi/memory enhancing, hypoglycemic, anticancer activity, anti-inflammatory and anti-stress activity

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ginseng adverse effects

vaginal bleeding and mastalgia (pain in breast), insomnia, nervousness, hypertension

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ginseng drug interactions

psychiatric, estrogenic, or hypoglycemic medications and warfarin

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Kava (piper methysticum) active principle

kavaloactones or kavapyrones

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kava on CNS

mild sedation - similar to bzd but use diff receptors

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kava used for

anxiety

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milk thistle (silybum marianum) active principle

silymarin

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milk thistle parts used

fruit and seed

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milk thistle effects

free radical scavenger, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-neoplastic

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milk thistle uses

cirrhosis, hepatitis, hypercholesterolemia

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St. John's Wort (hypericum perforatum) active constituents

hypericin, hyperforin

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st. John's wort pharmacological effects

inhibits NE, 5HT, DA reuptake

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St. John's wort used in

depression

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St. John's wort adverse effects

photosensitization (patients should be instructed to wear sunscreen while using it), hypomania, mania, autonomic arousal

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St. John's wort drug interactions

antidepressants, CNS stimulants (risk of serotonin syndrom and hypertensive crisis), enzyme induction (leads to increased metabolism of many drugs)

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Saw Palmetto (serenoa repens) active constituents

phytosterols

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Saw palmetto effects

inhibits 5 alpha reductase inhibiting testosterone conversion to dihydortestosterone

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saw palmetto use

BPH

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DHEA (dehydroepiandrosteron) effects

antiaging, inc libido, inc sense of well being

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DHEA side effects

hair loss, acne, breast cancer

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Nutritional supplements

melatonin, glucosamine

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Melatonin

5HT derivative preduced by pineal gland and other tissue, responsible for regulating sleep wake cycle

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Melatonin uses

Jet lag, insomnia

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melatonin adverse effects

drowsiness, lowers LH so not good for woment trying to conceive and nursing women

50

Glucosamine

found in human tissue, substrate for the production of articular cartilage and also serves as a cartilage nutrient, commercially derived from rabs and other crustaceans

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glucosamine uses

primariy pain associated with knee arthritis

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Coenzyme Q10

also known as CoQ, coQ10 and ubiquinione, mound in mitochondria of heart kidney, liver, skeletal muscle etc

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CoQ10 after injestion

the reduced from, ubiquinol predominates

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CoQ10 uses

hypertension, heart failure, ischemic heart disease, prevention of statin-induce myopathy

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CoQ10 adverse effects

GI upset

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CoQ10 drug interaction

may dec effects of warfarin since structurally similar