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Flashcards in Pharm 4 Deck (99)
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1

Pharmacodynamics

action of the drug inside the body. deals with physiological/biochemical effects of drugs, their mechanism of action at macromolecular/subcellular/organsystem levels

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how do drugs work

modifying underlying biochemical/physicological process_..NOT de novo

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physical properties of drugs

mass, adsorptive property, osmotic activty, radioactivty

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how do laxatives work

draw water into lumen

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mass examples

bulk laxatives --> bran,
methylcellulose

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adsorbtion

binding to a drug

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adsorptive property examples

charcoal, kaolin

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osmotic activity examples

magnesium sulfate, mannitol

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example of a diuretic

mannitol draws water into the kidney to remove water

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radioactivity example

iodine

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chemical properties

antacids like Al(OH)3,
Mg(OH)2 neutralize gastric HCL

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example of a drug acting on an enzyme

enalapril inhibits ACE

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example of drug acting on receptor

most durgs

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actions of drug receoptr interaction

molecular/conformational changes,
alteration of enzyme activity,
changes in permeability/transport processes,
cascade of changes leading to a response

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types of drug action

stimulation,
depression,
replacement,
cytotoxic

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stimulation

selective enhancement of the level of activity of specialized cells

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epinephrine stimulates

heart

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pilocarpine stimulates

salivary gland - PNS stimulant

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depression

selective diminution of activity of specialized cells

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barbiturates depress

cns reticular activating system and produce sleep

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quinidine depresses

heart - antiarrithemic

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drugh that stimulates one cell and depresses another cell type

acetylcholine

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replacement examples

insuline in diabetes mellitus,
levodopa in parkinsonism

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cytotoxic effects examples

anticancer drugs produe cytotoxic actions against neoplastic cells,
antibiotics produce cytotoxic action against microbes

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most drugs act by

binding to receptors

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functions of receptors

propagation of signals from outside to inside,
amplify the signal,
adapt to short term and long term changes

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receptor families

channel linked/ligand gated,
g protein linked/coupled,
kinase linked,
intracellular receptor

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channel linked (ligand gated)

ionotropic,
selective ion channel Na, K, Ca, Cl,
drug binding results in opening or closing of chnnel,
fastest (milliseconds)

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g protein linked/coupled

metabotropic - cell membrane receptors linked through g proteins to effector mechanisms which include --adenylyl cyclase, phospholipase C,
channel regulation,
takes seconds to produce

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kinase linked

(minutes) enzyme linked receptor,
phosphorylation of tyrosines .
Mst imp is to transport glucose receptors to surface