Pharm 8.2 -Muscuranic blockers Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pharm 8.2 -Muscuranic blockers Deck (46)
1

Anticholinergic drugs are also called

antimuscarinic or parasympatholytics

2

atropine is abtained from

atropa belladona

3

antimuscaranic drugs are classified as

natruarl alkaloids, synthetic, and antiparkinsonism

4

natural alkaloids drugs

atropine and scopolamine

5

synthetic drugs

homatropine, ipratropium, oxybutynin, cyclopentolate, tropicamide, dicyclomine, pirenzepine, glycopyrrolate, tolterondine

6

antiparkisonism drugs

trihexyphenydyl, procylidine, benztropine

7

atropine blocks

muscarinic receptors competitively

8

atropine structure

teriary amine, so enters BBB

9

atropine works both

centrally and peripherally

10

atropine actions on the CVS

tachycardia (due to blockade of Ach M2 receptors on SA node, also facilitates AV conduction, NO marked effect on BP, dialate blood vessels in facial blush area (atropine flush) that is not related to the antagonistic action (due to hyperthermia with resulting vasodialation)

11

atropine actions on the eye

mydriasis, cycloplegia

12

atropine induces mydriasis by

blocking the parasympathetic tone to the iris circular muscle -- unopposed sympathetic timulation of the radial muscle results in dialation of the pupil

13

atropine induced cycloplegia is

paralysis of accomodation due to blockage of M3 receptors on ciliary muscle - cannot focus near giving rise to blurring vision

14

accomodation is caused by changes in the

lens - cliary muscle constirction allows for relaxation, lens widening allowing you to see close - cholinergic receptors

15

atropine duration

7-10 days

16

atropine usual concentration %

0.5-1%

17

scopolamine duration

3-7 days

18

scopolamine usual concentration

0.25%

19

homatropine duration of effect

1-3 days

20

homatropine usual concentration

2-5%

21

cyclopentolate duration of effect

1 day

22

cyclopentolate usual concentration

0.5 -2%

23

tropicamide duration of effect

0.25 days

24

tropicamide usual concentration

0.5 to 1%

25

Atropine actions on Smooth muscles

relaxation of SM leading to -- GIT peristalsis inhibition/constipation, Bronchus dialation, urinary bladder retention due to relaxation of bladder and constriction of sphincter and trigone

26

atropine actions on glands by M3 rec

decreases secretions of salivary glands, thermoregulatory sweat gland, tracheobronchial tree, acid in the stomach and lacrimal gland

27

atropine can casue body temperature to

increase

28

atropine on CNS

minimal CNS stimulant action in usual doses but high doses cause --restlessness, excitement, hallucinations, disorientation, inhibits vestibular disturbances (esp in motion sickness)

29

tremor of parkinson's disease is reduced by centrally acting anti-muscarinic drugs like

trihexyphenyldyl, benztropine

30

what drugs prevent or reverse vestibular disturbances of motion sickness

atropine, scopolamine

31

with increasing dose atropine (in order)

decreases secretions, mydriasis and cycloplegia, hyperthermia, tachycardia, sedation, urinary retention and constipation, behavioural excitation and hallucinations

32

atropine is absorbed from the

GIT

33

Atropine can freely penetrate the

cornea

34

half life of atropine is

4 hours

35

which drug has better passage to the brain, atropine or scopolamine?

scoplamine

36

uses of atropine substitutes

preanesthetic medication, peptic ulceration, antispasmodic, bronchial asthma and COPD, mydriatic and cycloplegic agent, bradycardia, antidote to organophosphorus poisoning, parkinsonism and drug-induced extrapyramidal dysfunction, overactive bladder, motion sickness

37

atropine substitutes for preanesthetic medication

hyoscine, glycopyrrolate

38

atropine substitutes for peptic ulceration

pirenzepine

39

atropine substitutes for antispasmodic

hyoscine, glycopyrrolate, dicyclomine

40

atropine substitues for bronchial asthma and COPD

Ipratropium, Tiotropium

41

atropine substitutes for mydriatic and cycloplegic effects

tropicamide, homatropine, cyclopentolate

42

atropine substitutes for parkinsonism

trihexyphenydyl, benztropine

43

atropine substitutes for overactive bladder

oxybutynin, tolterodine, trospium, solifernacin, darifenacin

44

atropine substitutes for motion sickness

scopolamine

45

adverse effects of atropine

blurred vision (mydriasis and cycloplegia), dry mouth, fever, constipation, urinary retention, tachycardia, agitations, hallucinations, delirium

46

contraindications of atropine

glaucoma (narrow angle), urinary retentions (esp BPH patients)