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Flashcards in Pharm 7.1 Deck (78)
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Autonomic nervous systmem

activities are not under direct conscious control

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Autonomic nervous systmem controls

primarily the visceral functions sucha s cardiac output, blood flow to various organs, heartrate, BP, digestion_necc for life

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nervous system and endocrine system

many commonalities - high level of integration in the brain, extensive negative feedback, chemicals fro transmission of information

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two types of fibers

pregangliionic (myleinated) and post gaglionci (non myelinated)

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divided into

pANS and SANS

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major neurotransmitters

Ach (PANS) and NE(SANS) _..but both ganglia use Ach

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ORIGIN

Thoraco-lumbar

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DISTRIB

Wide

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GANGLIA

Away from organ

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LENGTH OF FIBERS

Short preganglionic; Long postganglionic

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NT

NE

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FUNCTION

Stress

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ORIGIN

Cranio-sacral

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DISTRIB

Limited

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GANGLIA

Close to organ

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LENGTH OF FIBERS

Long preganglionic; Short postganglionic

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NT

ACh

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FUNCTION

Conserve energy

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all preganglionci fibers and somatic (nonautonomic) motor fibers are

cholinergic

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all postganglionic parasympathetic and a few sympathetic post ganglionic fibers are

cholinergic

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enteric nervous system

a large and highly organized collection of neurons located in the walls of the gastrointestinal system functions independently of the CNS and controls the motility, exocrine and endocirne secretions, and cicrocirculation of GIT (sometimes considered a 3rd division of ANS)

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ENS is a collections of

nerve fibers that innervate the GIT, pancreas, gall bladder and it constitues "brain of the gut"

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ENS plexuses

myenteric plexus (the plexus of Aurbach) and the submucos plexus (the plexus of Meissner)

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ENS is modulated by

SANS and PANS

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Bear vs Couch

Sympathtic vs Parasympathetic

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SANS responds to

stressful situations - fight or flight

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Effects of stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system

increase BP and HR, mobilize energy stores of the body, increase blood flow to keletal muscles and the heart while diverting blood from the skin and internal organs, dialation of the pupils and bronchiles, affects GI motility and fn of bladder and sexual organs

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SANS tens to fn as

a unit with diffuse distribution of post ganglionic fibers involved in a wide array of phsiological activities - complete system

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PANS maintains

essential body functions (homeostasis) - rest and digest

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PANS is not a

functional entity and never discharges as a complete system, but discrete PNS fibers are activated separately

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Role of the CNS in autonomic control functions

ANS is a motor (efferent) system however requires sensory input from peripheral sturctures

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sensory afferents originating in the viscera and other organs travel to

integrating centers in the CNS - hypothalamus, medulla oblongata, and the spinal cord

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the integrating centrs respond by

sending out efferent reflex impulses via the ANS (reflex arcs)

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baroreceptor ex of reflex to dec blood pressure

drop in bp, reduced stretch of baro receptors in aortic arch, reduced frequency of afferent impulses to medulla (brainstem)----> inhibition of PNS and activation of SNS, increased peripheral resistance cardiac output, increased blood pressure

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pupil dialation and glaucoma

percipitates attack

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innervation by ANS

dual innervation, or only sympathetic innervation

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dual innervation

most organs are supplied by both PANS and SANS however dominance of one over the other does exist (ex heart is contolled mostly by vagus nerve)

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organs receiving only sympathetic innervation

adrenal medulla, kidney, pilomotor muscles, sweat glands, contol of BP mainly by sympathetic activity

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arterioles predominantly

sym - adrenergic

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veiens predominantly

sym - adrenergic

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heart

pns - cholinergic

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iris

pns - cholinergic

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ciliary muscle

pns - cholinergic

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GI

pns - cholinergic

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Bladder

pns - cholinergic

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salivary glands

pns - cholinergic

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sweat glands

symp -cholinergic

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genital tract

pns and sns

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chemical signaling btw cells

neurotransmitters, hormones, local mediators (histamine, prostaglandins)

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BP control mechanisms

autonomic and hormonal feedback loops

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SLIDE 37-39

read for understanding

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ANS steps in neuro-hormonal transmission

transmitter, synthesis, transmitter release, transmitter action on the postjunctional membrane, termination of action

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major NT at autonomic and somatic sites

Ach

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Synthesis of Ach

transport of choline is inhibited by hemicholinium

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uptake into storage vesicles of Ach

protected from degredation

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release of neurotransmitter

blocked by botulinum toxin, spider venom cause release of Ach

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binding to receptor

receptor activated--inhib by vesamicol

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degredation of ach

rapidly hydrolyzed by acetyl-cholinesterase in the synaptic cleft

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recycling of choline

choline is taken up by the neuron

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Neostigmine

anticholinesterase

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hemicholinium

inhibit choline carrier blocking uptake

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vesamicol

inhib of vesicular storage ach

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botulinum toxin

inhib release of ach

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suxamethonium at neuromuscular jn

depolarizing blocking agent - stimulates nicotinic receptor for prolonged period of time so receptor becomes desensitized

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tubocurarine at neuromuscular jn

non-depolarizing blocking agents

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synthesis of Ach takes place in the

cholinergic nerve endings choline acetyl transferase (ChAT)

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release of ach occurs by

exocytosis with the influx of ca inos

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Ach acts on two classes of receptors

muscuranic, nicotinic

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muscuranic receptor

GPCR (M1-M5)

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Nicotinic

ion channel receptor

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Muscurantic receptors are stimulated by__..and blocked by___

muscarine __.atropine

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M1 location

CNS

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M2 location

heart (myocardium), smooth muscles

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M3 location

smooth muscels, bladder, exocrine glands, GIT (gastric parietal cells)

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neuronal nicotinic receptor

at ganglia and adrenal medulla

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muscle nicotinic receptor

at neuromuscular junction

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nicotinic neuromuscular jn (N-m) antagonist

tubocurarine, atracurium

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nicotinic nerve jn (Nn) antagonist

hexamethonium, mecamylamine