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Flashcards in Pharmachology Respiratory System Deck (27):

What is the classification of drugs affecting the respiratory system?

1- bronchodilators
2- anti-inflammatory agents
3- antihistamines
4- medications for Colds and Coughs and Nasal congestion


What are contributing factors to having an efficient respiratory system?

Quality and quantity of air
Patency of airway
Expansion and contraction of the lungs
Exchange of O2 and CO2 at the alveoli level


What is another name for Bronchodilators?



What do COPD, asthma, chronic bronchitis and emphysema have in common?

They are respiratory disorders characterized by bronchoconstriction or bronchospasm with potential triggers of:
Respiratory infection, odors, smoke, chemical fumes, cold air, exercise, emotional upset and some drugs.


What are some physiological factors that aggravate bronchoconstriction?

Mucosal edema
Excessive mucus production


What is the therapeutic action of bronchodilators and Anti-asthmatics?

Dilate airways
Reduce inflammation
Stabilize mast cells (they release histamine when not stable)


What are the three (3) bronchodilators?

Xanthine or "oophyllines"


What are some of the characteristics of Adrenergic as a bronchodilator?

Prototype is Epinephrine (Adrenaline). Treatment in the ER. B1 and B2 effects so must monitor for B2: HTN, tachycardia, palpitations. There are B2 selective ones like Albuterol (Proventil) short acting for treatment or a rescue inhaler.


Why must we use adrenergics cautiously with patients with DM?

Because it can increase blood sugar


What are some ADE of Adrenergics?

Serious: bronchospasm (paradoxical side effect)
Common: palpitations, tachycardia, HTN, anxiety tremors.


What are some characteristics of Anticholinergics in treating the respiratory system?

Prototype: Atropine
Think DRY so it decrease secretions. Not used for acute treatment. Used for daily maintenance.
ADE: cough
Serious: bronchospasm and arrhythmias


What are some characteristics of Xanthines or "oophyllines" in treating the respiratory system?

Prototype: aminophylline
It relaxes smooth muscle in the bronchus.
CNS stimulation:
Increase reflexes
Increase RR
Increase HR + chronotropic
Increase Myocardial contraction + inotropic
Increase risk of ulcers


What are some of the ADE of Xanthines?

Serious: arrhythmias, seizures
Common: n/v, headache, insomnia
Respiratory distress: tachycardia, dyspnea, use of accessory muscles, hypoxia


What are the three (3) classification of Anti-inflammatory agents?

1- corticosteroids
2- mast cells stabilizers
3- leukotriene inhibitors


What are some of the characteristics of the Corticosteroids?

The therapeutic action is that they suppress airway inflammation. They are commonly referred to as steroids and are very good anti-flammatories. Decrease mucosa, airway reactivity, mucus secretions.


What are some of the ADE of Corticosteroids?

Serious: oral candidiasis
Common: dry mouth
Contraindication: systemic fungal infection, TB, or any active infection.
Use cautiously with peptic ulcer disease, HTN, DM


Anti- inflammatory nursing intervention related to Corticosteroids:

Give bronchodilators first. THEN Corticosteroids


Anti-inflammatory: 2- Mast Cells Stabilizers?

Prototype: Cromolyn sodium (Intal)
Prevent release of histamine an related mediators. Prevents attack and exercise induced asthma. Blocks mast cell de granulation and stabilize cell. NOT for acute treatment.


What are some of the ADE of Mast Cell Stabilizers?

Prototype: Cromolyn sodium (Intal)
Common: dry throat, cough, wheezing.
Serious: bronchospasm


Anti-inflammatory: 3- Leukotriene Inhibitors?

Prototype: zarfirlukast (Accolate)
Prevents asthma attacks - NOT for acute attacks.
Common ADE: headache, gastritis
Serious: hepatic failure


What is Anti-Histamines?

They block the action of histamine that is being released. H1 for respiratory


What are the causes of Histamine release?

Increase capillary permeability
Increase mucus production
Stimulation of sensory peripheral nerve endings
Dilation of capillaries


What is the main purpose of drugs affecting the respiratory system?

Relief symptoms as they do not have the ability to cure the disease


What are the types of allergic reactions?

Type I to Type IV
Most concern with this class:
type I - immediate hypersensitivity
Ex: rhinitis to anaphylactic schock


What do Anti-Histamines do?

They bind to central and peripheral H1 receptors
CNS: depression : sedation
Anticholinergic effect:
Dry mouth, nose and throat
Blurred vision
UA retention
Anorexia, N/V, Constipation


What are the two generations of Anti-histamines?

1st Generation: Non-selective
2nd generation: more selective for peripheral H1 receptors rather than CNS
Zyrtec, Allegra, Claritin


What are the function of Colds and Coughs Medicines?

Work as a nasal decongestant (most often adrenergics.
Antitussives - prevent cough (design for the non-productive cough)
Expectorants - liquify secretions
Mucolytic- liquifies mucous
Cold remedies- combination of antihistamine, nasal decongestant and mild analgesic. E.g: NYQuil