Flashcards in Pharmachology Respiratory System Deck (27):
What is the classification of drugs affecting the respiratory system?
2- anti-inflammatory agents
4- medications for Colds and Coughs and Nasal congestion
What are contributing factors to having an efficient respiratory system?
Quality and quantity of air
Patency of airway
Expansion and contraction of the lungs
Exchange of O2 and CO2 at the alveoli level
What is another name for Bronchodilators?
What do COPD, asthma, chronic bronchitis and emphysema have in common?
They are respiratory disorders characterized by bronchoconstriction or bronchospasm with potential triggers of:
Respiratory infection, odors, smoke, chemical fumes, cold air, exercise, emotional upset and some drugs.
What are some physiological factors that aggravate bronchoconstriction?
Excessive mucus production
What is the therapeutic action of bronchodilators and Anti-asthmatics?
Stabilize mast cells (they release histamine when not stable)
What are the three (3) bronchodilators?
Xanthine or "oophyllines"
What are some of the characteristics of Adrenergic as a bronchodilator?
Prototype is Epinephrine (Adrenaline). Treatment in the ER. B1 and B2 effects so must monitor for B2: HTN, tachycardia, palpitations. There are B2 selective ones like Albuterol (Proventil) short acting for treatment or a rescue inhaler.
Why must we use adrenergics cautiously with patients with DM?
Because it can increase blood sugar
What are some ADE of Adrenergics?
Serious: bronchospasm (paradoxical side effect)
Common: palpitations, tachycardia, HTN, anxiety tremors.
What are some characteristics of Anticholinergics in treating the respiratory system?
Think DRY so it decrease secretions. Not used for acute treatment. Used for daily maintenance.
Serious: bronchospasm and arrhythmias
What are some characteristics of Xanthines or "oophyllines" in treating the respiratory system?
It relaxes smooth muscle in the bronchus.
Increase HR + chronotropic
Increase Myocardial contraction + inotropic
Increase risk of ulcers
What are some of the ADE of Xanthines?
Serious: arrhythmias, seizures
Common: n/v, headache, insomnia
Respiratory distress: tachycardia, dyspnea, use of accessory muscles, hypoxia
What are the three (3) classification of Anti-inflammatory agents?
2- mast cells stabilizers
3- leukotriene inhibitors
What are some of the characteristics of the Corticosteroids?
The therapeutic action is that they suppress airway inflammation. They are commonly referred to as steroids and are very good anti-flammatories. Decrease mucosa, airway reactivity, mucus secretions.
What are some of the ADE of Corticosteroids?
Serious: oral candidiasis
Common: dry mouth
Contraindication: systemic fungal infection, TB, or any active infection.
Use cautiously with peptic ulcer disease, HTN, DM
Anti- inflammatory nursing intervention related to Corticosteroids:
Give bronchodilators first. THEN Corticosteroids
Anti-inflammatory: 2- Mast Cells Stabilizers?
Prototype: Cromolyn sodium (Intal)
Prevent release of histamine an related mediators. Prevents attack and exercise induced asthma. Blocks mast cell de granulation and stabilize cell. NOT for acute treatment.
What are some of the ADE of Mast Cell Stabilizers?
Prototype: Cromolyn sodium (Intal)
Common: dry throat, cough, wheezing.
Anti-inflammatory: 3- Leukotriene Inhibitors?
Prototype: zarfirlukast (Accolate)
Prevents asthma attacks - NOT for acute attacks.
Common ADE: headache, gastritis
Serious: hepatic failure
What is Anti-Histamines?
They block the action of histamine that is being released. H1 for respiratory
What are the causes of Histamine release?
Increase capillary permeability
Increase mucus production
Stimulation of sensory peripheral nerve endings
Dilation of capillaries
What is the main purpose of drugs affecting the respiratory system?
Relief symptoms as they do not have the ability to cure the disease
What are the types of allergic reactions?
Type I to Type IV
Most concern with this class:
type I - immediate hypersensitivity
Ex: rhinitis to anaphylactic schock
What do Anti-Histamines do?
They bind to central and peripheral H1 receptors
CNS: depression : sedation
Dry mouth, nose and throat
Anorexia, N/V, Constipation
What are the two generations of Anti-histamines?
1st Generation: Non-selective
2nd generation: more selective for peripheral H1 receptors rather than CNS
Zyrtec, Allegra, Claritin