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Flashcards in Pharmacology Deck (16)
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1

What is the danger of using flumazenil?

It has the shortest half life of the receptor, meaning that you can give it, reverse the effects of a benzo overdose, and then become re-sedated

2

What is the name of the dihydropyridine receptor that is metabolized by plasma esterases?

Clevidipine

3

Of the two, which is more alpha selective: Dexmedetomidine or Clonidine?

Dexmedetomidine!!

4

What type of receptors mitigate diaphoresis?

mAchR, which means that an Ach esterase inhibitor can cause diaphoresis

5

CYP450 inducers and inhibitors

*** look in FA

6

What patients are at risk for accumulation of Morphine active metabolites? What is the metabolite called?

1. Renal failure patients
2. Morphine 6-glucuronide

7

Describe the "gate theory"

1. A-beta nerve fibers inhibit C and A-delta nerve fibers

8

How does cryotherapy work?

Slows nerve conduction

9

What is the likely target of dexamethasone in PONV prophylaxis?

Targets the Nucleus tractus solatarii

10

When using atropine, what AchEinh would be best?

Edrophonium

11

What are the two factors that determine the speed of onset and offset of opioids?

1. Lipid solubility: the most lipid soluble will cross the BBB faster and clear faster (this is why morphine takes awhile to work and be cleared from the system: it is hydrophilic)
2. pKa (pKa < 7.4 will result in more of the drug being in unionized form at physiologic pH)

12

What is the opioid with the lowest pKa? What is the opioid with the highest lipid solubility?

Alfentanil
Sufentanil

13

How does mannitol cause hyperkalemia?

Translocational: as water efflux leaves the cell, it takes K with it

14

What type of drug is Terbutaline? What is it used for? What electrolyte disturbance might be seen with its use?

1. B2 agonist
2. asthma and tocolysis
3. hypokalemia

15

Describe the onset time of chlorprocaine. How is it metabolized? When is it used?

1. 6-12 minutes: this is due to the large volume that is utilized
2. Plasma esterases: this creates fast offset
3. utilized in labor when fast analgesia is required and an epidural is already in place

16

What are the three drugs that are metabolized by CYP2D6? What class of drugs inhibits this receptor? Which drug is dependent upon its metabolism to form active metabolites?

1. Codeine, hydrocodne, oxycodone
2. SSRIs
3. Codeine. Hydrocodone and oxycodone are active alone, but become more potent when metabolized.