pharmacology chapter 33: bacterial infections (DNA replication, transscript, and translate) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in pharmacology chapter 33: bacterial infections (DNA replication, transscript, and translate) Deck (38):
1

name the quinolones

ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, norfloxacin, olfoxacin

2

what quinolone can cause tendon rupture

ciprofloxacin

3

what is the common ending for quinolones

-xacin

4

what is the contraindication for ciprofloxacin use

concomitant tizanidine administration

5

why should you avoid co-administration of thioridazine with quinolones

can cause increased risk of cardiotoxicity (QT prolongation, tornadoes de points, cardiac arrest)

6

what do quinolones inhibit

topoisomerase II

7

what type of bacteria are quinolone used against

gram negative

8

what do rifabutin and rifampin inhibit

type 2 topoisomerases

9

what is a contraindication for rifabutin and rifampin use

active neisseria meningitides infection

10

what drug should not be used concurrently with rifabutin

clarithromycin

11

how might rifampin effect cyclosporine use

may reduce its concentration and efficacy

12

what 3 drugs bind to the 30S ribosomal subunit

ahminoglycosides, spectinomycin, tetracyclines

13

what are the major adverse effects with aminoglycosides

ototoxicity and acute renal failure

14

what is the alternative therapy for gonorrhea that binds to 30S subunit

spectinomycin

15

what is the major therapeutic consideration for spectinomycin

permits formation of the 70S complex but inhibits translocation

16

what is the only tetracycline that can be used in patients with kidney disease

doxycycline

17

what tetracycline can be used for malarial prophylaxis

doxycycline

18

who are tetracyclines contraindicated for

last half of pregnancy, infancy, children under 8 years of age, patients with severe renal impairment

19

why should tetracyclines be taken on an empty stomach

because calcium products interfere with its absorption

20

why should tetracyclines not be co-administered with acitretin

because of increased risk of elevated intracranial pressure

21

what is the major contraindication for macrolides and ketolides

hepatic dysfunction

22

what is chloramphenicol used to treat

broad spectrum antibiotic active against bacteria (especially anaerobes) and rickettsiae

23

what are the major adverse effects with chloramphenicol

hemolytic anemia, aplastic anemia, gray baby syndrome

24

what does chloramphenicol antagonize the bactericidal effects of

penicillins and ahminoglycosides

25

what are most adverse effects of chloramphenicol due to

inhibition of mitochondrial function

26

what infections are lincosamides (clindamycin) used for

bacterial infections due to anaerobic organisms (i.e.: bacteriodes)

27

what are the major adverse effects of clindamycin

pseudomembranous colitis, increased liver function, jaundice

28

what is clindamycin associated with the overgrowth of

C. difficile

29

what are streptogramins (dalfopristin/quinupristin) used to treat against

vancomycin-resistant enterococcus faecium (VREF), and skin infections caused by staphylococcus aereus and S> pyogenes

30

why should streptogramins not be used with SSRIs

due to risk of serotonin syndrome

31

why should streptogramins not be used with pimozide

due to increased risk of cardiotoxicty

32

what is linezolid resisted by in some bacteria

mutation in the 50S subunit's 23S rRNA region

33

what is linezolid used for the treatment of

gram positive bacterial infections, nosocomial pneumonia, complicated diabetic foot infections

34

what are the major adverse effects of linezolid

myelosuppression, peripheral neuropathy, optic neuropathy

35

what is the mechanism of retapamulin

bind to pocket in A site where aminoacyl tRNA normally binds (binding also extends to P site)

36

what is retapamulin used for the treatment of

impetigo due to MRSA or streptococcus pyogenes

37

what is the common adverse effect of retapamulin use

application site irritation

38

what is the major therapeutic consideration for retapamulin

topical application for bacterial skin infections