Pharmacology Lecture 3: Vasodilators and Hypertensive Drugs Flashcards Preview

Block C - Circulation > Pharmacology Lecture 3: Vasodilators and Hypertensive Drugs > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pharmacology Lecture 3: Vasodilators and Hypertensive Drugs Deck (23):
1

Functions of arterial vasodilators (3)

  1. Preferntial relaxation of arterial smooth muscle
  2. Reduce afterload (peripheral resistance)
  3. Lack of venous dilation --> increased preload (VR)

2

2 results of arterial vasodilator function

  1. CO increases
  2. BP lowers w/ resultant reflex increase in sympathetic tone, HR and SV

3

3 general functions of venous vasodilators

  1. Relax venous smooth muscle tone
  2. Produce blood pooling in capacitance vessels
  3. Preload reduction = decreased CO

4

2 effects of vasodilators on coronary vascular

  1. Dilatation of conductance vessels and collaterals increases flow to ischemic areas
  2. May dilate coronary arteries (may steal blood from ischemic areas)

5

Function of nitrates

Prodrugs --> lberate local nitric oxide --> vascular smooth muscle relaxation

6

Effect of systemic venous capacitance vessel dilation

Reduce preload --> reduced LV wall tension --> decreased myocardial O2 requirements

7

Nitrate absorption by different modes of administratoin

Oral = prominent "first pass" effect (limited bioavailability)

Patch = well-absorbed by skin and mucous membranes

8

4 clinical uses for nitrates

  1. Treatment of angina pectoris
  2. Preservation of myocardium after MI
  3. Controlled hypotension
  4. Heart failure

9

4 adverse effects of nitrates

  1. Headache
  2. Palpitations
  3. Flushing
  4. Syncope

10

3 arteriolar vasodilators

  1. Hydralazine
  2. Minoxidil
  3. Diazoxide

11

Hydralazine, minoxidil and diazoxide effect

Lower blood pressure

12

Potential consequences of using arteriolar vasodilators

  • Increased proximal tubular sodium reabsorption = antagonize BP lowering effect (salt and water retention)
  • Headaches and palpitations

13

Additional medication added to arteriolar vasodilators in order to counteract side effects

  • Beta blocker
  • Diuretic

14

Define prazosin

Alpha 1 adrenergic receptor blocker (mixed venous and arteriolar effects)

15

3 uses for prazosin

  • Hypertension treatment
  • Heart failure
  • BPH obstructive symptoms (increase tone of smooth muscle of bladder neck)

16

Vascular effects of calcium channel blockers

Impair excitation-contraction couplign in cardiac and vascular smooth muscle = dilate coronary arteries and peripheral arterioles + decrease cardiac contractility

17

3 uses for calcium channel blockers

  1. Coronary artery disease
  2. Hypertension
  3. Supraventricular tachydysrhythmias

18

List 3 calcium channel blockers in order of more vascular to more electrophysiological properties (2nd one is intermediate properties)

  1. Nifedipine
  2. Diltiazem
  3. Verapamil

19

Function of ACE inhibitors

Inhibit conversion of angiotensin-1 to angiotensin-2

20

2 uses of ACE inhibitors

  • Hypertension treatment (lower systemic BP)
  • Heart failure

21

3 adverse effects of ACE inhibitors

  1. Hypotension
  2. Cough
  3. Taste disturbance

22

Uses of angiotensin 2 receptor blockers

  • Hypertension
  • Heart failure

23

Effects of angiotensin 2 receptor blockers

Same as ACE inhibitor side effects (minus cough):

  • Hypotension
  • Taste disturbance