Physiology Lecture 3 -- Heart Sounds Flashcards Preview

Block C - Circulation > Physiology Lecture 3 -- Heart Sounds > Flashcards

Flashcards in Physiology Lecture 3 -- Heart Sounds Deck (33):
1

Where to auscultate to hear loudest S1

Heart apex (tip of left ventricle)

2

Where to auscultate to hear loudest S2

Base of heart (aortic area)

3

What is dP/dT

Slope of the left ventricular pressure curve

4

What does the intensity of S1 depend on?

The mitral valve leaf locations when LVP and LAP juxtapose

5

Effect of dP/dT on intensity of S1

Shallow slope = slow P rise = quieter S1 (think of it as slowly closing a door versus slamming it shut, if the slope was steeper)

6

What condition can produce a louder than usual S1?

Left atrial pressure higher than normal due to mitral stenosis (obstruction to mitral inflow)

7

Physiological splitting of S2 cause

Inspiration causes the pulmonary valve to close a bit later than the aortic valve, causing a split in S2 due to a shift of the A2 P2 interval

8

Define mitral stenosis

Mitral valve does not open properly since it's shaped more like two hockey sticks (U) than a W = valve parachutes open
Assume no calcification

9

When can opening sounds be heard?

Just after S2

10

Common cause of mitral stenosis

Rheumatic fever --> rheumatic heart disease --> rheumatic mitral stenosis

11

Increased severity of mitral stenosis effect on quality of opening sounds

Increase left atrial pressure causes a decrease of A2 - opening sound interval (isovolumetric relaxation) = harder to differentiate between the two

12

What does S3 imply

Volume overload

13

What does S4 imply

Pressure overload

14

2 conditions that can lead to S3's

Mitral regurgitation
Constrictive pericarditis

15

Describe the quality of the sound produced from a heart with constrictive pericarditis

Pericardial knock = really strong S3 that is louder than both S1 and S2

16

What causes S4

Any condition that makes the heart stiff (i.e. hypertensive ventricle, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, aortic stenosis)

17

Quality of sound produced by a hypertensive ventricle

S4 gallop

18

S4 position in heart cycleq

Late diastole coincident with atrial kick

19

Define hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

When one is born with an abnormally thick heart

20

What is the most common cause of sudden cardiac death in the young

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

21

Why would ejection sounds occur

Valve is opening or closing incompletely

22

2 examples of causes for ejection sounds

Bicuspid aortic valve
Aortic regurgitation

23

Location of ejectoin sound from bicuspid aortic valve in heart cycle

After isovolumetric contraction (early systole)

24

Location of ejection sound heard from aortic regurgitation in heart cycle

When blood is returning from aorta in diastole

25

Describe the heart ejection sound produced by aortic regurgitation

Early diastolic murmur that sounds like a blowing sound after S2

26

4 types of systolic murmurs

Early systolic
Holosystolic
Mid-systolic
Late-systolic

27

4 types of diastolic murmurs

Early diastolic
Mid-diastolic and presystolic
S3 rumble
Austin Flat Murmurs

28

What is a continuous murmur?

A murmru that occurs all throughout systole AND diastole

29

Describe an early systolic murmur

Like a washing machine

30

Example of an early diastolic murmur

Aortic regurgitation

31

Example of a mid diastolic or pre systolic murmur

Mitral stenosis

32

Examples of S3 rumbles

Mitral regurgitation
Septal defect
Mitral stenosis

33

What is a potential reason for continuous heart murmurs

Patent ductus arteriosis