Pharmacology of Psoriasis and Acne - Sweatman Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pharmacology of Psoriasis and Acne - Sweatman Deck (34):
1

What does the T cell surface antigen, CD-2, interact with on antigen presenting cells?

LFA-3

pre-requisite for T cell activation

2

What is the structure and MOA of Adalimumab?

TNF-a monoclonal Ab
Binds TNF-a, blocks its interaction with p55 and p75 cell surface receptors

3

what is the structure and MOA of Alefacept?

Recombinant human LFA-3/IgG1 fusion protein
Binds to CD2 on effector T cells prevents T cell activation

4

What is the structure and MOA of Apremilast?

Phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor (PDE4)
Increases cellular cAMP, consequences poorly understood

5

What is the structure and MOA of Etanercept

fusion protein of ligand binding portion of p75 TNF receptor and human IgG Fc
binds to and inactivates TNF
acts as "false" receptor for circulating TNF

6

use of biological agents in the context of psoriasis have what two general side effects? what are pts more susceptible to?

Immunosuppression - increased susceptibility to bacterial, fungal, and parasitic infection
may increase likelihood of a malignancy

7

what biological agents used in the treatment of psoriasis show CHF or hypotension/angina/dysrhythmia as side effects?

Adalimumab, infliximab, Rituximab
CHF is a contraindicaiton in the use of infliximab

8

What biological agents used in tx of psoriasis cause a lupus-like syndrome? (arthralgias, myalgias, fatigue, skin rashes?)

Adalimumab, Etanercept, Infliximab

9

What biological agent used in the treatment of psoriasis must you do LFTs for?

Infliximab

10

What is the structure and MOA of Infliximab?

Chimeric (mouse-human) IgG1k monoclonal Ab against TNF-a
binds to and neutralizes both soluble and transmembrane TNF-a

11

What is the structure and MOA of Uztekinamab?

Human IgG1k monoclonal Ab
binds to the p40 subunits of IL-12 and IL-23 cytokines

12

In general, what are the effects of retinoids?

critical signaling molecules, related to Vit A - produce myriad of effects in cell - antitumoral, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflamm (by inhibiting inflammatory cytokines)

13

with regards to the effects of retinoids on the skin, it is somewhat unclear what their effect is on keratinocyte proliferation. What are retinoids effects on sebum?

retinoids decrease sebum secretion and sebaceous gland size

14

Retionoids target RAR/RXR receptors - which target is more important for dermatologic treatment

RAR - predominantly affects cellular differentiation and proliferation

15

What is the main systemic toxicity we are worried about retinoids?

they are teratogens

16

What is the effects of acute toxicity to retinoids?

similar to effects of too much Vit A - dry skin, nosebleeds, conjunctivitis, reduced night vision

17

when are topical retinoids considered first line? what are they also effective in?

1st line for non inflammatory acne
also effective in reducing fine wrinkles and dyspigmentations assoc with photoaging

18

what are the principal side effects of topical retinoid use?

increased risk of sunburn

19

What is the MOA of Calcipotriene?

topical drug, binds to Vit D receptor; complex associates with RXR-a ad binds DNA Vit D response elements
(basically, it is a calcitriol analog I think)

20

what is the principal adverse effect of topical Calcipotriene use, and how is this fixed?

topical irritant - reduced by concurrent corticosteroids

21

what side effects can be seen with Calcipotriene as you reach the max weekly dosage

hypercalcemia/ hypercalciuria

22

what should you use instead of Calcipotriene in sensitive skin areas?

Calcitriol

23

How do we define the potency of corticosteroids in the setting of psoriasis treatment?

potency is based upon their ability to blanch the skin

24

not all dermatologic conditions respond well to corticosteroid activity - what determines this?

drug responsiveness varies by condition and by anatomical location

25

what is a key point about corticosteroids in the use of dermatologic conditions? do they treat the underlying cause?

they reduce the symptoms of inflammation, but do not address the underlying cause

26

What is the utility of fluorinated steroids? what precaution should be taken?

fluorination increases the potency
fluorinated steroids should NOT be applied to the face

27

in addition to topical application, what is another delivery option for corticosteroids in setting of derm conditions

intralesional injections of relatively insoluble agents whose release over an extended period

28

what parameters affect the topical adverse effects of corticosteroids?

potency, duration of application and surface area to which drug is applied

29

what are the principal adv effects of topical corticosteroid use?

dermal atrophy - "cigarette-paper" appearing skin
corticoid rosacea
other contact toxicities

30

what is the MOA of Benzoyl Peroxide?

liberates a free radical that is lethal to the Propiobacterium acnes bug

31

besides the free radical mediated effect of benzoyl peroxide, what other effect does BP have on the skin

keratinolytic activity that dries the skin and desquamative action

32

what is a side effect of benzoyl peroxide?

the oxidant nature will bleach clothes or hair

33

what is the MOA of salicylic acid?

topical keratolytic - causes desquamation of horny layer of skin

34

what pt population do we need to be cautious in using salicylic acid in?

mothers - neonatal toxicity via breast milk and contact toxicity