PharmII_Exam 1 Flashcards Preview

Pharm II > PharmII_Exam 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in PharmII_Exam 1 Deck (68):
1

What are the four drug classes of beta lactam?

PCN
Cephalosporins
Carbapenems
Monobactams

2

What is the name of the beta lactamase that is equivalent for cephalosporins?

Cephalosporinase

3

Name the three drugs under the category of Macrolides?

Erythromycin
Azithromycin
Clarithromycin

4

T/F?
Aminoglycosides are protein synthesis inhibitors?

True

5

T/F?
Fluoroquinolones are bacteriostatic in action?

False.

6

What's the diff b/w first line Tb drugs and second line Tb drugs?

Second line agents:
Less effective
Several Adverse Effects

7

Is INH bacteriostatic or bacteriocidal?

Bacteriostatic

8

T/F?
Ethambutol is able to penetrate many cell layers in the human body?

True

9

In what kinds of cells do Tb hide in?

Macrophage cells.

10

Can you use mebendazole in prego chicks?

NOPE, it is a contraindication.
Mebendazole is detoxified in the liver.

11

What enzyme is PCN G susceptible to?

Beta lactamases.
They are unstable at acidic pH and gastric invronment inactivates PCN G and only 30% absorbed from the duodenum

12

For which organism is Vancomycin used for?

Clostridium dificile.
Red man or redneck syndrome
Rescue drug

13

What is the name of a tetracycline that enters brain in absence of inflammation?

Minocycline.

14

What is the name of a tetracycline that can be used with renal infections?

Doxycycline

15

What is the name of a tetracycline that inhibits ADH and is used for SIADH?

Demeclocycline

16

Sulfonamides and trimethoprim act as what?

Antimetabolites

17

How does bacteria synthesize folic acid?

Through the utilization of PABA!

18

Name the three folate reduction inhibitors?

Pyrimethamine
Trimethoprim
Proguanil

19

Is the combo of sulfonamide and trimethoprim bactericidal or bacteriostatic?

Bactericidal

20

Resistance to sulfonamides?

1)Cause overproduction of PABA (substrate)
2) Cause production of a folic acid-synthesizing enzyme that has low affinity for
sulfonamides
3) Impair permeability to the sulfonamide

21

Pharmacokinetics of sulfonamides?

1) Oral absorbable --> further classified as short, intermediate or long acting
2) Oral nonabsorable
3) Topical
4) Parenteral

22

What are some adverse effects of Sulfonamides?

Nausea, vomitting, diarrhea.
G6PDH deficient patients may develop acute hemolytic anemia
Crystalluria and Hematuria

23

What is Mafenide good for?

Prevention of colonization of burns.
It is a sulfonamide

24

What is an adverse effect of Oral Trimethoprim?

hematological disorders that can be ameliorated with
supplementary folinic acid (leucovorin)

25

What is proguanil good for?

Malaria.
-Used in combination with atovaquone
(Malarone) in prevention and treating malaria
(#1 for tx malaria)

26

Use of IV Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole

Used in mgt of severe pneumocystitis carinii pneumonia, in AIDS pts
-Also useful in gram neg bacterial sepsis—
enterobacter and serratia
-Shinellosis, typhoid fever, or UTI when pt is
unable to take the drug by mouth

27

Use of oral Oral Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazol (TMP-SMZ)

second line drug for
typhoid fever and mgt of carriers of these
strains

28

MOA of Fluoroquinolones?

-Block bacterial DNA synthesis by inhibiting bacterial topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase) and
topoisomerase IV

29

Is fluoroquinolones bactericidal or static?

bactericidal

30

T/F?
Fluoroquinolones have good oral bioavailability?

True

31

Which generation of fluoroquinolones are anaerobic bacteria not immune to?

3rd & 4th gen

32

Which type of organisms are fluoroquinolones effective against?

Effective against gram neg organisms (pseudomonas, h. flu, moraxella catarrhalis, legionella,
brucella, myoplasma, Chlamydia and mycobacteria

33

Can you use fluoroquinolones in prego chicks?

NO.
This is a major contraindication.
Can't use in children either

34

What would ciprofloxacin do in children?https://www.brainscape.com/decks/1813639/cards/quick_new_card

Cause cartilage erosin (inhibits growth)—rarely used below 18 yo

35

What does 2nd and 3rd gen Fluoroquinolones do to the heart?

cause QT prolongation

36

Which two fluoroquinolones is best used for UTI

Cipro
Levo

37

List some horrible toxic symptoms associated with Fluoroquinolones?

arthralgia, joint swelling, tenonditis and tendon
rupture have been reported with use

38

What does methenamine produce?

Formaldehyde.
This will kill anything. Can go blind.

39

What contributes to mycobacterium acid-fastness?

Mycolic acid.
Long chain fatty acid

40

What does MDR tuberculosis stand for?

Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis

41

What does XDR tuberculosis stand for?

Extensive drug resistance.

42

How does MDR tuberculosis result?

From misuse of first line agents

43

How does XDR tuberculosis result?

From misuse of second line agents. Resistant to INH, rifampin
plus resistant to any fluoroquinolone and at least one of three injectable
second line durgs (amikacin, kanamycin, or capreomycin)

44

What is XXDR Tb?

resistant to all 1st and 2nd line drugs (basically
everything), making it nearly impossible to tx

45

Why is Therapy for infxns by m. tub, m. leprae and m. avium intracellulare

due to the
limited information about mechanisms, drug resistance, the intracellular location of infxn and the
advancement of disease

46

What is direct observation therapy?

drugs given directly to pts and watching them swallow the medications; preferred core mgt strategy for all pts w/ TB

47

MOA of INH?

-Inhibits synthesis of mycolic acids, which are
essential components of mycobacterial cell walls
mediated via oxygen dependent pathways

48

Is INH bacteriostatic or -cidal

Static.
It is used in prophylaxis of skin test converters

49

AE of INH?

-Hepatotoxicity
-Nephrotoxicity

50

Is rifampin bacteriostatic or bacteriocidal?

-Cidal

51

MOA of rifampin?

Blocks bacterial RNA synthesis by binding to DNA
dependent RNA polymerase in myobacteria (inhibiting RNA synthesis)

52

Contra-indication for Rifampin?

HIV pts taking protease inhibitors

53

Which drug turns urine, sputum, saliva, poop, and
body fluids to a red-orange color

Rifampin

54

Uses for Rifampin?

-TB ! used as prophylactic drug in isoniazid
intolerant pts
-Leprosy

55

Uses of Rifapentine?

Considered 1st line therapy in pt taking retroviral drugs but technically 2nd line for tx of TB

56

CI in ptx's taking Rifapentine?

pts taking protease inhibitors

57

What does Ethambutol block?

blocks arabino-galactin, a
component of mycobacterial cell wall

58

what is AE of Ethambutol?

-Visual disturbances (green blindness),
retinal damage (retrobulbar optic neuritis),
headache, confusion, peripheral neuritis

59

How long to use pyrazinamide?

6 months in combo therapy for Tb.
Highly toxic

60

What is Rifamate?

Rifampin + Isoniazid

61

What is Rifater?

Rifampin
INH
PZA

62

Which is the most effective drug used in Hensen's disease?

Dapsone

63

MOA of dapsone?

Inhibit folate synthesis (like sulfonamides)

64

Uses of dapsones?

-Mycobacterium leprae
-Used to prevent and tx pneumocytisis jiroveci
pneumonia in AIDS pts

65

Name the two sulfone drugs?

Acedapsone
Dapsone

66

Name the three drugs used for M. Leprae?

Dapsone
Acedapsone
Clofazimine

67

What does M. Avium cause?

causes disseminated infections in AIDS pts—
antimycobacterial agents along with another antibiotics are used

68

Name the two anti-fungals that contain polyene structures?

Amphotericin B
Nystatin