Flashcards in PharmII_Exam 1_help Deck (127):
What is the number 1 drug choice for trt of gonorrhea?
Just like what we saw in trt for Oc Disease
Cefixime is also used.
What is an adverse effect of Cephalosporin, esp those with methyl thio-tetrazole group
Disulfiram like symptoms when take with alcohol
What does Fosfomycin treat?
Uncomplicated UTI in pregnant females
Take one oral dose (3g)
Which drug classified under cell wall synthesis inhibitors that is only effective for TB
Describe Tetracycline resistance
Increased efflux by an active transport protein pump (tet-A)
What organisms is Tigecycline effective against?
Tetracycline resistant organisms
Which group of organisms does Clarithromycin & Azithromycin have enhanced activity against?
Mycobacterium Avium intracellulare
(Blow that A/C on Mycobacterium)
Which part of bacteria does macrolides bind to?
They bind reversibly.
Is Telithromycin a ketolide or macrolide?
The only drug
Name the only protein synthesis inhibitor that is bactericidal
What category of drugs does Gentamycin belong to?
Are they more effective against aerobic gram + or - organisms?
Gram - more effective.
What condition is necessary for Gentamycin to work?
MOA of Gentamycin
1. Blockthe formation of translation-initiation-complex
2. Misread the mRNA code
3. Disrupt the polysomes resulting in non-functional monosomes
What is the MOA of sulfonamides
Prevents the normal bacterial utilization of PABA for the synthesis of folic acid; anti-metabolites
MOA of Quinolones
Inhibits gyrase mediated DNA supercoiling.
Inhibit Topoisomerase IV in bacteria
Of the many things that Quinolones treat, name one of them?
Trt of UTI with pseudomonas aeruginosa
Norfloxacin is approved in the US only for UTI
What drug is used as the second line drug against TB?
What is the MOA for Isoniazid?
Blocks mycolic acid
Inactivates catalase peroxidase enzyme
What is RIPE?
Name some AE of Ethambutol?
Headache and confusion
Which drug is the only cell wall synthesis inhibitor for TB?
Which drug is the most effective against M. Leprae and inhibts bacterial folic acid synthesis?
Name and what do you treat Atypical mycobacterial infections?
M. Avium complex
How does Amphotericin B work?
Forms channels and pores by interacting with ergesterol.
Makes the membrane permeable to ions
MOA of flucytosine?
It gets deaminated to 5-FU; a potent antimetabolite by cytosine deaminase. 5-FU inhibits thymidylate synthase enzymes.
MOA of griseofulvin?
Inhibits mitotic spindle formation
What drugs are used in Hepatitis B?
MOA of foscarnet
An inorganic pyrophosphate that interacts directly and inhibits viral RNA polymerase, dnA polymerase and HIV RT
Which drug is used for Trypanosoma Cruzi?
A trivalent arsenic used in the later stages of CNS development
MOA of Nifurtimox?
Produces intracellular free radicals that kill American Trypanosomiasis
How do you treat Trematodes and Cestodes?
MOA of mebendazole?
Inhibits microtubule synthesisis of the parasite.
Parasite is expelled with feces.
List some drugs used against pneumocystosis
What is Tinidazole used against?
What is Metronidazole used against?
What conditions is PCN G used for?
Clostridium Perfringens (Gas Gangrene; use with Clindamycin)
How is PCN eliminated?
Kidneys (tubular secretion)
What condition do you use Ampicillin for?
Which of the two drugs can you only give orally: Ampicillin or Amoxicillin?
Which beta lactamase inhibitor is ampicillin combined with?
What do they treat?
Treat intra-abdominal and gynecological infections
If you are in the hospital and need I.V.; should the doctor combine PCN and aminoglycosides?
They do work together, but do not combine.
Are you allowed to use Amoxicillin for GI infections?
What are the three beta lactamse inhibitors?
How are cephalosporins excreted?
Kidneys - Tubular secretion
In what disease do we see parenteral cephalosporin usage?
What drug do we see the prophylactic usage for perioperative infections?
First generation Cephalsporins was active against what?
Second generation Cephalosporins was active against what?
Which cephalosporin drug is used as DOC for prophylaxis surgically?
Which two cephalosporin drugs are used as first line therapy for N. Gonorrhea?
Third generation (broad spectrum)
Which two cephalosporin drugs are excreted through the biliary tract?
No dosage adjustment is necessary in renal insufficiency
Which generation of cephalosporins are able to cross the BBB?
What generation of cephalosporins does Cefepime belong to?
Which group of drugs does disulfiram like symptoms appear in due to aldehyde accumulation?
Which group of drugs is said to be the broadest spectrum of all cell wall synthesis inhibitors?
Which group of drug contain a beta lactam ring without a primary ring?
Gram positive gather 100X more erythromycin than gram negative
Which macrolide is bacteriostatic and not active against enteric gram - bacilli?
Which macrolide is more active against M. avium than erythromycin?
Which macrolide contain long half lives because of extensive tissue sequestration and binding?
Azithromycin (68 hours)
There is extensive tissue distribution and high drug concentration within a cell.
Which group of drugs contain 2 MOA that are energy dependent and not absorbed via the GI tract?
What happens if you combine aminoglycosides and loop diuretics together?
Increase in Ototoxicity and Nephrotoxicity
What is the name of a semi aminoglycoside used for Gonocci?
Only use if pt is allergic to PCN, or gonococci are resistant to other agents.
What drug is Gray baby syndrome associated with?
What constitutes gray baby syndrome?
Gray color shock
What is the main usage for Clindamycin?
Trt of severe infections due to anaerobes such as Bacteroides.
What two species of organisms is clindamycin good at getting rid of?
Name one resistance mechanism of Sulfonamides?
An increase in substrate (PABA)
For children with Otitis media, what is sulfisoxazole combined with?
Marketed as Pediazole, Eryzole or Pediagen
Which drug is converted into anti-inflammatory?
Preferred over corticosteroids for tx of
ulcerative colitis/granulomatous colitis
What is the name of topical sulfonamide used for prevention of infection of burns?
Reduces microbial colonization
Mafenide as well
What is the name of drugs that prevents the colonizatoin of burns?
Silver sulfadiazine as well.
What does combo of Sulfadoxine and Pyrimethamine trt?
1. second line tx for malaria;
2. prophylaxis and
tx of mefloquine resistant plasmodium
What is TMP-SMZ used for?
Pneumocystic Jirovecii Pneumonia
systemic salmonella infections, UTI, prostatitis, some ontuberculous mycobacterial infxns
Give me a good combo for malaria?
Proguanil + atovaquone
WHat is the group of drugs that inhibit bacterial topoisomerase?
What does sulfonamides cause in neonates?
Which generations of FQ mess with QT prolongation?
Which drug turns urine to reddish/orange color?
Which antimycobacterial drug is used in combo for M. tuberculosis for short regimens?
MOA of Imidazoles?
inhibits ergosterol synthesis by
Inhibiting 14 alpha demethylase
Disrupts the packing of phospholipids
Which drug is used as oral troche for oropharyngeal candidiasis?
Better tasting than Nystatin
Which drug is used for cryptococcal meningitis?
Fluconazole in combo with Amphotericin B
Which drug is used for cutaneous candidiasis and vulvovaginitis?
What is the problem with Nystatin
Very toxic parenterally
Which drug is used for invasive candidiasis and aspergillis?
Which drug is an anti-herpetic used for CMV retinitis?
Which drug is an anti-herpetic that is an inorganic pyrophosphate?
Which drug is used for influenza A and B, Hep C and RSV bronchiolitis and pneumonia;
also prevents capping of viral mRNA?
Which drug is used as an antisense mechanism?
At what stage is NRTI initially used for HIV?
CD4 is less than 500
What drug is an oral for pediatrics greater than 3 months?
Name a couple of nucleotide analogues for HIV and HBV?
Tenofovir and Adefovir
What do all protease inhibitors end with?
Which drug is a non-peptide protease inhibitor that has the least resistance?
Which drug is a fusion inhibitor that binds to GP41?
Which drug is an Entry inhibitor that binds to CCR5?
Which drug is an integration inhibitor?
Which drug treats influenza and is used for parkinsonism?
Which "vir" drug is used intransally & orally
WHich thingy majig causes african sleeping sickness?
Which thingy majig causes SA and chagas disease?
MOA of Malarsoprol?
Inhibits parasitic enzymes
What drug is used for unwanted facial hair in women?
What is DOC for T. Cruzi (chagas)?
Which drug dreats Giardia/Trichomoniasis?
Which drug is the best choice for taxoplasmosis?
Which drug is the number one anti-malarial?
Combo of Atovaquone + Proguanil
What is MOA/usage/CI of Mebendazole
Inhibits microtubule synthesis
Talk about Praziquantel
Treats all species
Only choice for trematodes
CI in cysticercosis
How is Cefepime so much diff from 3rd generation drugs like Cefaperazone/Ceftriaxone?
More resistnt to beta lactamase produced by enterobacter.
What is a major side effect of carbapenem?
Excessive levels in pts w/ renal impairment
can lead to seizures
Among Meropenem and Imipenem, which is less likely to cause side effect?
Are macrolides eliminated from renal or biliary methods?
What enzyme do babies lack that result in gray baby syndrome?
drug is not eliminated
MOA & Uses for Acyclovir?
Inhibits viral DNA polymerase
HSV & CMV
Topical, oral and IV
Idoxuridine and Trifluridine is specific for which HSV?
Acyclovir is 10X more potent than this drug.
Which was first drug that was discovered used to treat Herpes?
Acyclovir is 160X more potent than this drug.
Uses of Fomivirsen?
-IV for CMV retinitis in AIDs pts
MOA of Fomivirsen
-Inhibits CMV through antisense
mechanism ! inhibits protein synthesis
Zanamivir is taken intranasally?
Oseltamivir(tamiflu) is taken orally?
Amantadine is useful in the trt of Parkinsonism (potentiates CNS dopaminergic responses)?
Amantine/Rimantine inhibit virus entry into the cell(Messes with the M2 protein).
Zanamivir/Oseltamivir inhibit virus exit out of cell
Name the two Respiratory SYncyial virus drugs?
What can't you use -navir with?